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To what extent are school factors responsible for social class differences in educational attainment?

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Introduction

´╗┐TO WHAT EXTENT ARE SHOOL FACTORS RESPONSIBLE FOR SOCIAL CLASS DIFFERENCES IN EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT. A middle class student is easily differentiated from a working class student; this could be by their nursery, key stage test results, exam results at Gcse and A level, the rate of exclusion in school and very often their presentation the ways they present themselves. School factors are the internal factors and they play a bigger part in a Childs educational achievement they take up to 70%.school factors include things like labelling/teachers expectation;howard Becker carried out an important interactionist study of labelling, based on 60 interviews with teachers from Chicago high school. He found that peoples were judged according to how closely they fitted an image of the ?ideal pupil?. The way the pupils worked looked and conducted themselves was how the teachers judged them, the middle-class students were seen as been closer to the ideal pupil than the students from middle ?class because they were badly behaved. However not all teachers are middle class and labelling has a disadvantage on working ?class students this brings about the self-fulfilling prophecy this is a prediction that comes true simply by virtue of having it been made.(interactionists argue that labelling can affect pupils achievement by creating a self-fulfilling prophecy).Robert Rosenthal and Leonora Jacobson show the self-fulfilling prophecy at work, the school was told about a new test designed specially for those who spurt ahead ...read more.

Middle

A-C economy this is a system in which schools ration times, effort and resources, concentrating them on the pupils who they perceive has the potentials of getting A-C and this is done so as to boost the schools league table. The word triage means sorting so the word educational triage means school categorise their pupils (those who will pass those with potential and hopeless cases).working class and black pupils are labelled as lacking ability as a result are likely to be ?hopeless cases?. Although not all working- class and black students fail some of them actually achieve their A-C grades.Gillborn and youdell notion of ?triage? are similar to laceys idea also streaming and labelling but they put it in a wider context by linking triage to marketisation policies within the educational system. Some schools have responded to marketisation by creating a ?traditional? image to attract middle-class parents this also has reinforced class divisions. There is evidence that marketisation and selection process have created a polarised education system; popular, successful, well-resourced schools with a more able, largely middle ?class intake at one extreme and unpopular,?failing?under-resourced schools with mainly low achieving working-class pupils at the other.Gewirtz describes this as a blurred hierarchy of schools.Gewirtz found that differences in economic and cultural capital lead to class differences in how far parents can exercise their choice of secondary school. ...read more.

Conclusion

Also attitudes and values Douglas found that working class parents place less value on their children education. Although this does not apply to all working class parents. Hyman argues that values and beliefs of lower-class sub-culture are a self imposed barrier sugar man also talks about immediate gratification which refers to dropping out of school at 16 to work instead of staying on further for more qualification. Also compensatory education which means the government offer compensation to children in derivation this includes things like EMA?s.Keddie describes cultural deprivation as a myth saying a person can not be deprived of their culture and argues that working class children are simply culturally different. She blames the school, and claims that the working class students are put at an disadvantage by educational system and that they need to recognize and build on its strength. Barry troyna and jenny Williams argues that it is not the child?s languages but the school attitudes towards it. in conclusion success and failure is complex because there are a lot of barriers hindering the success of some students although not for all. Also theorist like lacey, sugar man, keddie ,bull have all come up with different ideas of why people are failing and some are not they have made their points very clear and convincing by backing them up with evidence. In all fairness both internal and external factors play an equal role in a student educational achievement in different ways, and this affects the working class children greatly. ...read more.

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