• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

To what extent were changes in Scottish leisure, religion and education between 1880 and 1939 due to urbanisation

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

To what extent were changes in Scottish leisure, religion and education between 1880 and 1939 due to urbanisation In the 1880s people in Scotland were just as likely to live in a town or city as they were to live in the countryside. However by 1939 this had radically changed and most people were now urban dwellers. The process of urbanisation during this time is thought by many historians to have "affected the lives of ordinary people in all sorts of ways" (Sydney Wood). In particular there was notable changes in leisure, religion and education. In leisure people now had more time for themselves, and new opportunities became available to them. Religion became more and more diversified and secularisation became much more common. Education became seen as a necessity as apposed to optional and much more importance was put upon it. Though this is all true it must be looked at in more detail before it is associated solely with urbanisation. Leisure in particular was changed, but in many cases it had only just begun. Laws restricting working hours and increasing wages (for example the Shop Assistants Act 1911, and The coal mines (minimum wages) act 1912) meant that people, particularly men, had time and money they had never had to do with what they wished. ...read more.

Middle

. . for diverting the attention of the workers" (T C Smout). Changes in society and in particular the "upheaval of urbanisation rendered the system that suited rural Scotland unworkable" (Sydney Wood). In rural Scotland (ie the Highlands and islands) the Church of Scotland and also the Free Church remained the most popular, however in the cities it was a different matter. They had to compete with others such as the Episcopal Church, Congregational, Methodist and Baptist Churches and chiefly the Roman Catholic Church. In 1892 more than 1/3 of a million people attended its churches regularly, this rose to well over 600 000 by 1939, showing its large gain in support. Even so, this was not entirely due to urbanisation as the huge migration of Irish Catholics and Jewish must also be taken into account. Not only did they face competition from other faiths, but were challenged by scientists such as Charles Darwin who questioned the Calvinist beliefs. The bible was fiercely scrutinised and questioned which many who had "never thought of not going to church" (Morrice) found upsetting. The most detrimental change that materialized though was loosing their key role in welfare and education. "Churches were becoming private clubs" (Callum Brown) and became less involved with peoples lives. Teacher run training collages were turned over to the state in 1907 and rate and taxpayers now helped the poor. ...read more.

Conclusion

Then in 1923 elementary pupils ages 11-12 sat a qualifying exam that would determine their ability and the school they went to. Some went to a senior 5 year schools to gain Higher's and the possibility of going to university, others to junior 3 year schools and left without qualifications. Many thought this was unfair as it was often the better off children who gained entry to 5 year schools - it was "academic education to qualify them for their role as a controlling elite" (T C Smout). Universities were also reformed in the 1880s. In 1889 The Universities (Scotland) Act introduced a 4 year honour degree aswell as the ordinary 3 year degree. Women were admitted on the same terms as men and the number of places rose from 6000 in 1900 to 10 000 in 1939. Although there was other reasons for these reforms (eg improving the national economic efficiency), the dense population caused by urbanisation brought it to the governments attention sooner rather than later and made it easier to centralise resources. There is little doubt that there has been large changes in leisure, religion and education however urbanisation was only one part of this. Although urbanisation should not be undermined as an important factor it must be taken into account that other factors including Government reforms and War have also made this possible. Mhairi B Thomson 5S2 ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Work & Leisure section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Work & Leisure essays

  1. What is education for? Critically evaluate the diverse functions of education with reference to ...

    For example in 1992 the Guardian newspaper reported that twelve members of the conservative cabinet had all attended private schools. Selection may not only provide an education suited to certain employment it may also give what would be deemed as societies correct attitudes within a 'hidden curriculum'.

  2. Religion can both be a conservative force and an initiator of social change. To ...

    "Women do of course, have a part to play in many religions, but it is always subordinate to the role of men, and it is likely to be in the private rather than the public sphere". This evidence suggests that religion acts as a conservative force within society, in that

  1. a) With reference to the Items and elsewhere, assess the view that the introduction ...

    Cultural differences could also contribute to class differences in educational attainment. Middles class and working class families have different values, beliefs and attitudes. They could account for some of the differences in educational achievement. Culture is formed at home with the family, children will probably inherit their parents culture or a slight variation of it.

  2. To what extent do feminist theories remain relevant for interpreting gendered patterns of work.

    By challenging, also, engrained stereotypes within society and questioning the ultimate 'differences' between man and woman, Mary Wollstonecraft and other liberal feminists pursued the notion of rights, in a further search for equality.

  1. Comment on the strength and weakness of the social security system in Hong Kong

    An extra amount of $255 per month is given. Another system named Portable CSSA is specially designed for the elderly living in the Guang Dong Province. The number of cases receiving CSSA grew from 105000 in 1994 to 231000 in 1999. The growth rate was very high and the expenditure in CSSA was more than a half of the total expenditure in social welfare.

  2. What is Education? Education has been an important aspect in people's lives. As ...

    The same thing applies for entry to high school from middle school. These events from the three different classifications of schools help students to build social skills, motor skills, and problem solving skills such as basic math, which is needed to solve everyday finances for example.

  1. Inequalities in education.

    MFD Young study on knowledge & power suggests that high status knowledge (knowledge that has been deemed important by a dominant group)

  2. Constraints of literacy in developing countries

    sabir4u, please do not redistribute this paper. We work very hard to create this website, and we trust our visitors to respect it for the good of other students. Please, do not circulate this paper elsewhere on the internet. Anybody found doing so will be permanently banned.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work