• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

What do the Pluralists say about the media generally?

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Pluralism represents another view of how the media function in society. In the US in the 1930s it derived out of dissatisfaction with mass society theory and the views of the Frankfurt School. Theories developed about the same time. The contrast between Pluralist models and Marxist is important to history and dep't of media studies. Spirited arguments in the past LP - It's a bit more difficult to pin down than Marxist theories - more diffuse, but many of the views and principles of pluralism find support with media professionals/journalists - they believe that this is how the media operate - often go back to ideas of freedom of the press upto free market models which were pushed in the 1980s, particularly for broadcasting - no govt intervention - let the market and the paying public decide. But pluralist models are more difficult to pin down because they are less explicit about their concept of society, but they aren't necessarily theoretical i.e. does have theoretical elements. Essentially can be seen like this in relation to dominance/Marxist models: News Sources - competing interests v ruling class or dominant elite Media - many, independent and competing media v concentrated ownership & uniform product Production - creative/original/free v standardised/routinised/controlled Content & Worldview - Diverse and competing, responsive ...read more.

Middle

They are also powerful because they set the agenda of what is covered in debate. We are dependent on the media and some media potentially have more power than others e.g. television news which is respected as a truthful source of information. Pluralists argue that modern society has produced discriminating cultural consumers. People are more literate, more aware of what's going on in the world, and class distinctions are now less important in influencing individual choice. People can choose from a wide range of options, and the WC are just as likely to watch Panorama as anyone else, while soap operas are watched by all. To support these arguments pluralists point to the way high culture now reaches a mass audience e.g. opera on TV. They point to the greater affluence of people where they have the money to buy a range of media products. The individual simply has the freedom to make his or her choice based on personal preference. CONCLUSION So on the surface we have very opposing views from the Marxists and Pluralists, but in fact they aren't so incompatible: The perceived differences between Marxist and Pluralist theories are no longer so clear cut. ...read more.

Conclusion

The differences between the two approaches are partly a result of misunderstanding and partly a result of the tendency of both traditions to study the mass media in different contexts. This is a consequence of their differing ideological and theoretical preoccupations. Summary Generally pluralists give media varying degrees of independence or autonomy with regard to other institutions like the state, political parties - and in their production of media content. But also underline dependence - e.g. state depends on mass media to propagate its information and mass media depend on state to provide this information. Pluralist approaches believe the media are not controlled by a few but represent a multiplicity of sources and a diversity of messages. They also believe that the media are only one force or influence in society - there are other influences too which can overrule any independent effect the media might have. According to the pluralist view of the world the established order is not fixed. Institutions and groups compete for power, and power in society is diffused/spread out. It isn't concentrated in the hands of a few. Through the competition of ideas, gradual change can take place. In contrast Marxist analysis emphasizes the established and fixed nature of the distribution of power - which is centered within a few institutions. Both pluralist and Marxist Positions are derived from an understanding of the nature of power and its distribution. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Media section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Media essays

  1. Assess the Pluralist theory of the media and ownership

    The Instrumentalists' main arguments would include that owners set the frameworks of their organisation and determine the long term plans of their investments. They would ultimately argue that media is a tool of ideological control to reflect interests of the powerful and that controllers only possess operational control.

  2. Assess the pluralists view on media ownership

    Comparing both Marxism and post modernism one can argue that with the majority of views being aired nowadays [e.g. Robert Kilroy Silk's article on terrorism] anyone can put across a view yet the higher up you are in the hierarchy the more likely your view can be expressed due to one possessing more power to manipulate and control the media.

  1. The function of Education is to develop and reinforce social solidarity.

    Another gender construction is canalisation this is the way in which parents channel the children's intrests into toys and activities that are seen as 'normal' for that sex for example buying a female doll for a female child, or taking a male child go-karting.

  2. "Any sociological explanation of the influence of the mass media needs to take into ...

    This is the opposite of the Private Management Trainees. This tells us that ethnicity might also play a part on how we interpret/code messages in the media. Unfamiliar scenes/situations/episodes/texts from the media might block our understanding of what the programme really talks about. The apprentices (aged 17 - 29 years)

  1. "The media reflects society; just as there is diversity in society, there is diversity ...

    They see this to be highly apparent in advertising as products are shown to bring emotions like happiness, love and even life fulfilment. They also notice 'agenda setting' in society through the media. This is when the 'ruling class' limit the views and ideas that are discussed in society.

  2. To what extent do the media effects an individual's self-identity?

    As I am looking at gender stereotyping in magazines, the best method of research I can use to gather useful information would be content analysis. I intend to conduct this on young women's magazines available on the market today. This is a very good and effective method for me personally

  1. Moral Panic and media folk devils.

    and computer games have caused panic during the last few years after shootings involving children in America. The child responsible for killing many of his classmates had been playing violent games like Resident Evil and Grand Theft Auto. Grand Theft Auto was slated by the media because it encouraged

  2. Assess the pluralist view of media ownership

    have little direct impact on the media content since all their efforts are put into maximising profits. In order to maximise profits, the media owners create conglomerates, whereby the concentration of media ownership is increased. Since conglomerates have shared ownership, the owners? power is diluted.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work