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AS and A Level: Work & Leisure
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- Marked by Teachers essays 2
Through the socialisation of future generations they claim that the needs of society are meet, thus the installation of, what are seen to be, socially agreed shared norms and values into youths results in a future respect for authority and conformity to societies rules, amongst other things. Therefore, this will, in theory, lead to social harmony, stability and social integration. Davis and Moore (1945) argue that the education system matches students to the jobs in which they are best suited on a basis of their talent and ability.
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Functionalists also take into account that many societies come from a variety of national and cultural backgrounds. The functionalist view also says that western society based schools give awards on the basis of the individual ability, talent effort etc. The Marxist view on the other hand states that the students are awarded on their ability to conform as part of the 'hidden curriculum'. What is referred to, as the 'hidden curriculum' is the teaching of children in schools to conform to rules, and to learn to accept authority and the need for punctuality.
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Assess the view that vocational education and training schemes have done nothing to reduce social inequalities.
The training scheme was also introduced around the same time as students experiencing difficulty with their traditional subjects. The aim was to help 14-16 year olds get more out of their education. The students were allowed to attend college for one/two days a week to study for vocational qualifications that were not available at school. Most schools used this to re-engage disaffected young people. Although many schemes may have helped working class students it has also helped middle class and so it does not appear to have helped reduce social inequality but instead give students more choice over their education.
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It provided material relief such as food to those who are in urgent needs only. No social security system was introduced at that time in HK. At the post war period, the government started to take responsibility in the social welfare provision. In 1948, the Social Welfare Office was established in Hong Kong which was forced by circumstances, that is, the extreme level of poverty and destitution to provide emergency relief in kind rather than in cash. It was the first time the Hong Kong government to offer public assistance which is extremely restricted.
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Obesity is not the individual's problem. The spark in obesity rates means that many people are forced into becoming obese.
If the average diet of an individual in the U.S. could be examined then anyone could see, as Martin Binks states, "calorie-dense foods are far more readily available than ever before" (Motluk 563). Kids and adults alike devour far too much 'junk food', and it is not their fault because corporations make it possible to only see high calorie foods wherever an individual goes. Corporations place the food in front of the people's eyes and they convince them to buy it too! Whenever a child sees a McDonald's, Burger King, Pizza Hut, etc.
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Outline some of the ways in which some marketisation and selection policies may produce social class differences in educational achievement.
Silt-shifting is when a school off-loads pupils with learning difficulties who are expensive to teach and so get poor results. This benefits middle class pupils as all the troublesome students are removed from their school it means the teachers have more time for them to improve their grades thus making the school more popular because of their rank in the league tables then letting them cream-skim thus improving the school further. Consequently, this means the less successful schools have the less able, working class students putting them in a spiral of decline.
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Outline and evaluate the view that changes in the workplace have threatened the social roles and identities of men in society.
Due to this men may feel like they are losing their hegemonic masculinity as they are not seen as the 'Breadwinners' within their families. Also with the fact jobs are now open to both types of gender that there is an equal chance that a woman may be managing a group of men which could lead to men getting depression as due to the culture they were brought up in it could be demeaning to them and lead to them thinking they are not suitable men
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Some factors of obesity can be a genetic predisposition, family history or a wide range of biological differences. Metabolic rate is a life sustaining chemical activity; the ongoing interactions taking place in the living organism that provide the energy and the nutrients needed to sustain life. What people inherit is passed onto them in their genes. Genes control physical makeup. Also, genes control a whole set of chemicals in people's brain which controls their eating behavior. Parents are the most effective way to fight obesity. In the home, children are taught how to make eating choices. When parents allow their children to eat at fast food establishments, they cannot blame fast food for being unhealthy.
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Language is also associated with a child's progress, the elaborated code is used by teachers, text books and exams. Early socialisation is what gives children this manor of speech and Bernstein argues it makes children feel at home, in a school surrounding and allows children to express themselves clearly and efficiently. Gordon Bowker identifies a lack of standard English as a major barrier at school.
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During the peak industrious times, car makers such as Ford and GM made full use of manual labour in all their car factories. Employees stood alongside a conveyer belt performing their designated task. However, as technology progressed so did the car production method. Ford and GM both implemented robotics into their method of production as a result the need for unskilled workers vanished due to the simple fact it was more cost effective to use machinery to manufacture cars and only highly skilled engineers will be required to maintain the machinery.
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Rather then reporting on the quality of football, newspapers found more entertainment in the designer flauntings of Mrs. Beckham et al. After being dumped out of the competition in the quarter finals by Portugal, many front pages went as far as to blame the girls on tour rather than the boys. Some may argue that this lack of priority was a fault of not just the England players and their glamorous wives, but also the media themselves. Either way the WAG phenomenon is one that only this country seems to be obsessed with (it goes hand in hand with celebrity culture, spear headed by gossip magazines and tabloids, where simply being on reality TV makes you a bona fide 'celebrity').
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I intend to examine my group throughout its task using Tuckman's 'Theory of group processes' (1965). The first stage of Tuckman's theory is categorised as the forming stage. This is essentially an anxious period where members worry how they are perceived and what their role in within the group is. Members are careful to avoic conflict and to look to other members for approval or leadership. In the first term of my yoga class I personally felt a little anxious and overwhelmed. I decided to join the group for the opportunity to learn something new and to take in the benefits of yoga - including relaxation and flexibility.
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Paula Dean has achieved success (Achievement & Success) this depictment had a symbol of America, the flag, red, white and blue, stars and stripes (Freedom and Liberty) this wasn't the only advertisement with this American value theme behind or involved in the text, there was a medical ad for breathing medicine (Science and Technology)
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Assess the strengths and limitations of participant observation for the study of labelling in schools
Firstly, strength of participant observation is that results are usually valid. Rather than getting a participant to fill out a questionnaire when there is no real way of telling if they are giving accurate answers, participant observation can however provide high amounts of qualitative data and the researcher can put his findings into great detail. By observing ethnic minorities and teacher/student interaction towards them, the sociologist can gain understanding of their viewpoints and actions. Studies that take place in a natural setting e.g. a classroom raise validity as the students are more likely to behave in their normal manner, rather than if they were taken into a lab, they may react and treat ethnic minorities differently to conform to social accepted views.
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Access sociological explanations of the patterns of women's physical illness and access to healthcare.
But that argument is easily disputed as in recent years the gap is closing as modern trends suggest that it is no longer the case. The biological argues that women live longer because of a difference in hormones to men. The fact that women have more oestrogen than men is supposedly linked to their lower rates of such fatal illnesses such as heart disease. Recent trends, however, easily rebuttal that as incidents of death from such fatal illnesses like heart disease for men and women are becoming increasingly parallel, regardless of any difference in gender related genetics.
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The Catholic church is still incredibly prominent and important within many countries and so they view that religion is a conservative force is still true. When discussing whether religion is a conservative force it is really a discussion about different religious institutions being conservative. Within Christianity, different churches and interpretations differ greatly regarding being conservative or progressive. In its day, Protestantism was a very progressive force and Catholicism was very conservative, even though they both were Christian churches they were either conservative or progressive.
By this I mean don't tell jokes that will offend them make sure it is appropriate. In order to have an efficient conversation/ introduction you need to show a good understanding of speaking and listening skills. This will allow the patients to feel confident enough to talk freely and ask any questions and get a genuine answer. It will form trust between the hospital staff and the patient, whom will then feel confident and secure enough to be able to make their own decisions and to be respected in return; when this happens you know that you have built a relationship.
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It has been to varying degrees of success been relevant for noticing the changes in employment patterns over the years, which I will soon highlight. The liberal feminist approach, through its drive for individual liberty, has continued to mould the change in women's opportunities right up to this present day. This can be seen in its shaping of many equality reports, such as the Sex Discrimination Act (passed 1975) and the Equality Act (passed 2006). If we continue to look at the present twenty-first century - in which feminist theory remains a driving force in societal change - the changes in gendered patterns of work can be explained through this feminist theory.
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In the Munich Treaty of 1938, Allies attempted to join together and agree upon the terms of German expansion. They were anxious of Hitler's increasing power and influence and wanted to restrict the growth of the German empire, whilst also appeasing Hitler in order to prevent war. Allies agreed to allow Germany to take over the Sudetenland in Czechoslovakia, but pledged to guarantee the borders of Poland, Greece and Romania. When in 1939, Germany invaded the rest of Czechoslovakia, the allies did not retaliate, therefore did not offer a resistance to German expansion, this would have assured Hitler that expansion into Poland was unlikely to be opposed.
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The YOT identifies the needs of each young offender by assessing them with a national assessment. It identifies the specific problems that make the young person offend as well as measuring the risk they pose to others. This enables the YOT to identify suitable programmes to address the needs of the young person with the intention of preventing further offending. Their mission statement is simply "'Partnership to Prevent Offending by Young People' and has several key objectives such as; * Tackling delays, speeding up justice for all young offenders.
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Meaning that not many females pick certain subjects - therefore limiting the subjects that can do. By the subjects being limited it doesn't allow females to pick subjects they either want to do or will achieve well in due to an overwhelming number of male students in the classes. Because of this it has been shown that males generally tend to do better at A-level than females. But, if there was a step towards de-genderising subjects, there would be more females achieving higher then the males.
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Using information from the items and elsewhere, assess the Marxist view that education benefits the ruling class
However, it is also suggested that students learn an element of powerlessness in this way as they are rarely given a voice, whilst it is arguable that in the world of work and indeed as adults, a person does get to have more say in what goes on around them. The hidden curriculum goes beyond this and also suggests an acceptance of inequality and that some students are brighter than others, preparing them to accept this view in society too.
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The researcher used a questionnaire in the study to establish the conclusions. This information collected is Primary data. The researcher carried out this questionnaire on a small scale. Only asking 15 people to complete them, and all at their local hospital. It was compiled of a few simple questions all aiming towards, Did patients believe they should be receiving a better service? Therefore "Are NHS patients becoming increasingly consumerist?". As the researcher states in the report this was a quick and cheap option as they were on a limited time scale.
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So society is the real object of religious worship. From this, the worship of society strengthens shared values and beliefs and by defining them as sacred religion provides them with greater power to direct human actions. Collective worship through rituals also reinforces values and beliefs, as it is a shared expression of these. Thus reinforcing the collective conscience. Malinowski also touches on the topic of shared expression and reinforcing values and beliefs. However Durkheim does ignore the darker side of society in the conflicting values and physical conflict between its members.
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Using material from Item B and elsewhere, asses the view that changes in the law are the main cause of increases in the divorce rate.
There are now 50 times more divorces each year then there were in 1921. Since the Divorce Reform Act of 1969, divorce has been granted by 'irretrievable breakdown' and since 1984 couples have been able to divorce after the 1st year of marriage, this gives people the right to divorce and if they have the option to do so they will at times for the easy way out. Since the Second World War, divorces began to increase drastically, this is a result of women becoming more economically independent when there husbands went off to fight in the war.
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