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AS and A Level: Work & Leisure

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  1. If society valued people ONLY economically (i.e. by using money) Which type of people would be the most valuable - and why?

    Doctors and Surgeons would be very valuable, to care and treat all of the sick and injured people. Children with great education and skills would be valuable because you will need new people to tack the roles of scientists and doctors when the old ones retire.

    • Word count: 303
  2. In "Those Bastards" Simon Armitage writes about the fear that upper classes have upon working class revolt. Ccompare this theme with one of Duffy's poems.

    Duffy also indicates that when working-class rebel they get easily excited - "the pavements glitter". The use of short "i" in the word 'glitter' emphasizes this state. Moreover, those two devices have an intimidating effect on the reader and as a result we can easily feel why elite is scared of working class revolt - they can be overthrown by violence and everything can happen suddenly, without the time needed to defend yourself. In "Those bastards" the image of killing is emphasized by using an aggresive word - "shriek". The combination of sharp "sh", "r" and "k" makes us feel disturbed and unpleasant.

    • Word count: 1582
  3. Women in Victorian times compared to now

    Dress During the Victorian Period the ways girls dressed was down to men. Young girls, like their mothers, wore long dresses that covered their entire bodies. The fabric was. Girls usually sewed their own clothing. Accessories included hats, gloves, umbrellas and fans, which were used when a mother and daughter wanted to impress society. For girls, ages 4-9, the structure of their dresses included a small bow, or tie located about heart level. This design accented a small bust and long torso.

    • Word count: 682
  4. Cold As Dice

    He called a double or nothing on the jewelry, as he picked up the dice. He shook and rolled snake eyes (Which meant he lost automatically). Rob puts on his new accessories as he packed up and left for class laughing. The bell rang, but Jamie sat silent in the cafeteria, thinking about what to do. He was silent until the P.A came on to remind students of the unicef fundraiser. After the announcement he smiled, grabbed his bag and left. Int. School hallway- Day Rob stops at his locker, which he shares with his girlfriend MARY.

    • Word count: 697
  5. The role of education and the part it plays or should play in our society.

    However up until the Fisher education act of 1918 (where attendance was made compulsory) and the Butler act of 1944 it was seen that education as an institution failed greatly to produce a meritocracy. As simply, the working class pupils were not given an equal chance at academic achievement & were eventually unlikely to succeed. The aim of the tripartite system was to abolish class-based inequalities within education & further strengthen equality of opportunity & the acknowledgment of student potential.

    • Word count: 1008
  6. Education in Nervous Conditions.

    They don't want to follow their own culture as they feel superior to it and the white world does not accept them either. The Africans have adopted alongside with the colonial education, the values of the western world and this makes these students move away from the traditional world of Africa. The young generation would feel that through this education they had acquire too many skills to be able to get a proper gob in their society which they consider as backwards and when they leave their country for the colonial empire they are rejected.

    • Word count: 1293
  7. Causes of Poverty In Sierra Leone

    Lack of education, health services * Too little provison of job opportunities * No investments in the productive sector (agriculture, mining, fishing) * Climatic conditions (sand storms, dust storms) * The maluse of natural resources - They haven't taken advantage of their resources * Bad health care has opened the way

    • Word count: 282
  8. Assess the role of education form the functionalist perspective

    Emile Durkheim claims that schools perform two central functions, relating to social cohesion and the division of labour In order to exist, societal members must share common beliefs and values, these are only partially taught by the family, he emphasized the moral force of education, the way in which the school continues this process and the way in which children internalise the values and belief of society to became 'social beings'. According to him the main functions of education was the development of social solidarity through the transmission of a collective culture and making them realise they are part of something bigger.

    • Word count: 1006
  9. What was important to women in the past/ what is important to them now/ what will be important to them in the future?

    Although having a family/husband was still important, women started getting jobs. However, the jobs they were getting were not like the men's - they mostly had jobs like secretaries, teachers, nurses (jobs that have become stereotypical.) As time progressed, the importance of having a career and being independent grew among women. We definitely saw this in the early '80's with women starting to break into the business world. The importance of this to women was shown in movies and music of the '80s. Even in fashion, we started seeing women dressing like men - I.e.

    • Word count: 809
  10. What Are The Reasons For The Improvement in Girls Educational Achievements in Recent Years?

    Girls do not want to be dependant on men anymore and want to become something, with their own identity. They want to be independent, not having to rely on someone else to do things for them; they want their freedom: girls do not want to be like those women who were unable to become something and are now relying on government or other people to give them money. They want to be themselves, without people interfering in their lives. They want people to be proud of them for being better than boys, or being just as good. Boys were always given more rights than girls and now that is something girls want changed, and one of the biggest ways they can do that is by being educated.

    • Word count: 677
  11. Assess the importance of out of school factors for educational attainment among working class.

    This maybe because there parents can't afford decent clothes or school uniform for them and so this can lead to bullying at school. They can't afford basic school supplies such as pens and pencils and on raining days they have no car to get driven to school in. It is no secret that labelling takes place in schools and because the working class child arrives at school already at a disadvantage from there tatty clothes they are more likely to be labelled negatively than that of a middle class child.

    • Word count: 725
  12. Views on Human Nature and the Division of Labour

    But Rousseau notices that through time, man's abilities increase. Life, for him, becomes increasingly complicated. Rousseau observes that the savage man can adapt to different environments more than any other species because of their "ability to observe and imitate their industry" (295). As savage man observes, he begins to relate ideas together. For example, a man observes that large rocks, when thrown at animals can kill them. He also observes that the meat of the dead animals nourish him. By relating these observations, he develops his ability to reason: he realizes that the rocks serve as excellent tools in catching prey.

    • Word count: 1780
  13. Explain the emergence of compulsory mass education in England during the second half of the 19th Century.

    Grants and donations were paid to "honourable" men who were willing to build schools and maintain them. These church schools had little focus on the properties of education and instead were geared to produce God fearing obedient servants of the state. Often the children attending these schools couldn't understand writings but were taught how to recite large passages of the Bible. From 1833 there was increased subsidy from the government to support these schools. �20,000 was allocated per year to aid schooling this rose to �30,000 in 1839. To explain this increased interest in state intervention there are two avenues of option.

    • Word count: 1495
  14. 20th Century Drama

    Really, it was only the middle classes who were educated because the upper classes could not be bothered. They did not have to. The lower classes simply could not afford it. A hundred years later, the issue of everyone not having a fair chance of a decent education still remains. Overall, everyone has a better, much improved, education than they would have had a hundred years ago, but nowadays good jobs still demand a better education than a modern poor family's money can provide. The system is relatively similar; the more money available, the better the education. As for the issue of war, two wars have been fought since the play was written.

    • Word count: 873
  15. a) With reference to the Items and elsewhere, assess the view that the introduction of comprehensive schools has led to "equal opportunity for all". (14 Marks)

    They believe that without social class they would be an uncivilised society ruled by money and not class or background. The introduction of the comprehensive system took place in the late 1950s. it was introduced because there was a need for a higher quality education for the masses. Many people also disliked the 11 plus and tripartite system and wanted a change for the better. In 1969 the Labour Government decided that all education authorities should have some comprehensive schools.

    • Word count: 5404
  16. A comparison of the Marxists and Functionalists Approaches to Education

    Marxists point out a weakness in this view. Durkheim presumes that the norms and values learnt in the school are those of society rather than those of the dominant culture. Bordiue stated that there was a Cultural Capital and that was what was being promoted in the education system. In the UK this dominant culture is middle class; therefore the working class are disadvantaged in schools. So the dominant middle class are more likely to succeed because the education system is more suited to them.

    • Word count: 1287
  17. Describe the employment opportunities for women in Britain in 1914, at the outbreak of world war one

    Middle class parents were much more likely to pay for a boy's education because a girl would be expected to get married and not have to work. This lack of education meant that most women had little chance of getting a degree or having a profession such as medicine, even though some universities did let women study there. Even if a woman was highly qualified, there was resistance to them working: for example, in the teaching profession women had to leave their jobs if they got married and they were rarely promoted above men.

    • Word count: 670
  18. Using material from Item A and elsewhere assess the contribution of functionalist sociology to an understanding of the role of education in society.

    Durkhiem stated that for a child "to become attached to society, the child must feel in something which is real, alive and powerful, which dominates the person and to which he owns the best part of himself". Durkhiem's view is supported by the UK where there is a common national curriculum, which helps to support shared norms and values and they also learn about the history of Britain. Durkhiem stated that school serves a function in a complex industrial society that the family or peer group can't.

    • Word count: 2601
  19. "Show how the provision of education before 1833 depended upon personal wealth."

    This was where the education stopped for the females; though, the upper class young boys went on to attend a public school, such as the ones at Eton, Harrow and Winchester, which taught classics, such as Latin and Greek, classical History and sport. Though these schools were well known for bullying, including fagging, strict corporal punishments and really bad teaching. These types of schools were very inefficient, and many parents knew these schools taught mainly 'manly habits,' such as fighting and bullying.

    • Word count: 775
  20. Explore the ways in which European values and customs are shown to effect African Society in DMP, SW and TR

    Obi remains stubborn and does not remove the sticks. A few days later Obi awakes to find that his beautiful compound has been destroyed, every hedge has been torn up, every flower has been trampled on and even one of the school buildings has been pulled down. On this day the school inspector comes and writes a bad report. Obi had put all his efforts to make the school marvellous and beautiful. Still, one morning, Obi woke up among the ruins of his work. He was influenced by European customs and he disrespected the views of the villagers and for this he paid the ultimate price.

    • Word count: 982
  21. Describe the employment opportunities of women in Britain in 1914 at the outbreak of war.

    Although it was not too difficult for women to get jobs, promotion opportunities were poor. One reason for this was that women were often not as well educated as men. Before 1876 education was not compulsory, and it was not free until 1880. In 1902 the school leaving age was raised to twelve, and staying at school after this meant winning a scholarship or paying fees. Sometimes parents would pay for a son to carry on but not a daughter, as it was assumed that a daughter would get married and be supported by her husband.

    • Word count: 629
  22. The scientific revolution

    Through A Vindication of the Rights of Woman, Mary Wolstonecraft responded to Burke and asserted the existence and importance of Natural Rights. More specifically, she argued that God had given Natural Rights to both men and women. Known as the '"'feminist bible'"' throughout the 19th century, her Vindication offered a view of society from a female perspective, and exposed the exploitation of women. Female physical inferiority led men of the period to analyze the situation and worsen the condition of women in the world.

    • Word count: 1511
  23. Case Study 2: Daimler-Chrysler

    to overcome this failure. Certain factions of its production of the A-Class may be in-sourced and outsourced. R&D is to be in-sourced as Daimler-Chrysler views R&D as the very essence of its technological leadership over other car manufacturers. R&D is essential for the company as it paves new ways for innovative product designs. In terms of product design, the Mercedes-Benz A-Class is a prototype from Daimler-Chrysler and to maintain market leadership, the design of vehicles has to be done internally as it serves as a platform for competitive advantage in other areas like engine design. Withal, most other functions in the production of the A-Class may be outsourced.

    • Word count: 1929
  24. To what extent were changes in Scottish leisure, religion and education between 1880 and 1939 due to urbanisation

    meant that people, particularly men, had time and money they had never had to do with what they wished. This in itself was a result of the Liberal Government reforms, not urbanisation. What men particularly liked to do was go to the pub. 'Rough Culture' (drinking, gambling etc) became an increasing problem and by 1914 the average annual consumption of whiskey was around a gallon a head. There was large resistance to it including the temperance movement who opened non-alcoholic pubs and the creation of an anti-ice-cream political group who objected to ice cream parlours which were seen as places of gambling.

    • Word count: 1391
  25. Describe the employment opportunities of women in Britain between 1914 and 1918.

    Trade unions were worried that if women took up men's jobs now then after the war they would not be able to return to their jobs. Although soon most women were working along side men on a friendly basis some men refused to help them as they feared their employees would cut their wages as women were cheaper to employ. Many women joined trade unions. In 1914 433,679 women belonged to trade unions and by 1918 this figure had almost trebled to 1,209,278.

    • Word count: 933

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