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Introduction

Chemistry: Density: The amount per unit volume Units for liquid: g/ml & Solid: g/ cm3 *** you may also see kg/m3 ** Note: Density of water is always 1 g/ml Density of gold is always 19.3 g/cm3 ** Substances less dense will float & more dense will sink. Formula: Density = Mass / Volume mass is measured in grams (g) volume is measured in millimetres (mL) Solid is measured in centimetre cubed (cm3) Density using Graph: to get density value, divide the mass coordinate by the volume. Physical/ Chemical Changes Physical Change: Changes in which no new substance is created. New properties may appear but the particles of the new substance are not changed. - Changes of state are physical changes (Melting, Freezing, Condensation, Sublimation, and Evaporation). Ex. Melting ice, grinding coffee, & Dissolving sugar crystals in water. Chemical Change: The change of a substance into one or more different substances with different properties. Ex: Burning, Cooking, & Rusting. Evidence for chemical change: - New colour appears - Heat or light is given off or observed - Bubble of gas are formed - Solid turns into liquid - Change is difficult to reverse Classification of Matter Classification of matter: Anything that has mass and volume is matter. ...read more.

Middle

They react readily with nonmetals, particularly halogens. * Alkali metals have on electron in their outer shell, which is loosely bound. An alkali metal can easily lose its valence electron to form a cation. * The alkali metals exhibit many of the physical properties common to metals, although their densities are lower than those of other metals. Alkali Earth Metals: Location on the Period Table The alkaline earths are the elements located in Group 2 of the periodic table. Properties * The alkaline earths are highly reactive * The alkaline earths have two electrons in ther outer shell. The two valence electrons are not tightly bound to the nucleus, so the alkaline earths readily lose the electrons to form cations * The alkaline earths possess many of the characteristic properties of metals. Halogens: Location on the Period Table The halogens are located in Group 17 of the periodic table. Properties * Most reactive non-metals and almost always occur as a compound naturally * These reactive nonmetals have seven valence electrons. In a chemical reaction halogens will gain one electron to have a stable arrangement * The halogens are particularly reactive with the alkali metals and alkaline earths, forming stable ionic crystals. Noble Gases: Location on the Periodic Table The noble gases, also know as the inert gases, are located in Group 18 of the periodic table. ...read more.

Conclusion

Galaxy: A large huge collection of gas, dust, and hundreds of millions of stars and planet. Solar System: The Sun and all the objects that travel around it, including the nine known planets and the moons of those planet. Star: A large collection of matter that emits huge amounts of energy. Planet: A large piece of matter, generally spherical, that revolves around a star. Comet: A chunk of ice and dust that travels in a very long orbit around the sun. Meteor: A bright streak light across the sky caused by a meteoroid. Moon: Is a natural satelliet that moves around a planet. Sunspot: Is a region on the Sun's surface that is cooler than the surrounding areas Solar Flares: Is a massive explosion at the surface of the sun. Rotation and Revolution Rotation: Spinning of an object around it's own axis. -> One rotation of the Earth takes 24 hr = to 1 day -> The axis of the Earth is tilted at an angle of 23.5 degree Revolution: Is one complete orbit of an object around the Sun, a journey of one year. -> It takes for the Earth to revolve once around the Sun about 365.25 days. -> Where ever the axis is tilted at the Sun thats what seasons it is for that part of the hemisphere. -> When the northern hemisphere is tilted toward the sun, this creates summer in the northern hemisphere. Moon Phases Solar Eclipse Lunar Eclipse ...read more.

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