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According to the ACAS (the Arbitration, Conciliation and Advisory Service), teams within organisations have existed for many years and there are very little of these who have not used the term at one point.

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Introduction

"If team working is implemented as a coordinated and fully supported programme it can be the most cost-effective method of expediting lasting improvement within an organisation." (1) According to the ACAS (the Arbitration, Conciliation and Advisory Service), teams within organisations have existed for many years and there are very little of these who have not used the term at one point. "It is a myth that teams always come up with a better solution than one individual working alone." (2) A team is a group of people coming together to cooperate with each other. This is to reach a shared goal or task for which they hold themselves equally accountable. The members within a team are extremely dedicated to each other's personal growth and success. "Teams occur when a number of people have a common goal and recognise that their personal success is dependant on the success of others. They are all interdependent. In practice, this means that in most teams people will contribute individual skills many of which will be different....". (3) Working together as a team within an organisation provides many benefits for the organisation, this includes increased employee motivation and higher levels of production. Team members do not only cooperate in every feature of their tasks and goals, they also share in management functions, such as planning, assessing the team's performance, developing their own approaches to manage change, organising, establishing performance goals, and protecting their own resources. ...read more.

Middle

This was due to the women exercising a freedom they did not have on the factory floor and had formed a social atmosphere that also included the observer who tracked their productivity. He realised that workplaces are social environments and this, not only money, motivates the employees. The single most important discovery of the Hawthorn experiments was that workers had a strong need to co-operate and communicate with fellow workers. In Mayo's words, "...The eager human desire for co operative activity still persists in the ordinary person and can be utilised by intelligent and straightforward management." (5) In 1954, the Human Relation approach led psychologist, Abraham Maslow to develop a hierarchy of human needs. It was in the form of a triangle with the most important needs of a human being at the bottom. The third level was; social needs, they included the importance of acceptance by members of the family, individuals and as Mayo discovered, groups. The Ford Motor Company is a very wealthy company with over 400,000 employees across the world. It owns Hertz, the largest car rental company in the world. During the 1980s, it took the Ford Motor Company up to five years to design a new model this obviously was quite slow. Designers and engineers worked on the model condition without concerning other parties and then presented specifications to manufacturers but these specifications were inflexible. ...read more.

Conclusion

Frederick Taylor's scientific management theory has proved not to work in practice but was not completely unsuccessful. It aided Elton Mayo to develop his experiments and produce his theory of teamwork efficiency within organisations. Furthermore, Abraham Maslow developed his hierarchy of needs from both of these theorists. The three men contributed to the common knowledge within work places today, that teamwork is more effective and efficient than an individual working alone. This has been proved in many organisations is continuing to be the success of many companies and businesses. Teams do not, however, appear out of no where, in order for an organisation to make team working effective, a great deal of thought and effort has to done by management. This is why there have been 'team development' interventions such as "Outward Bound" weekends and team events out with the workplace. These are used a great deal by organisations such as HSBC, Barclays Bank and British Telecom. They are recognised as a method of encouraging team members to share concerns and issues in order to develop more effective ways in the workplace. To summarise, organisations can and have used work teams to improve the effectiveness and efficiency of their company. In the words of Miller Consulting Group of Atlanta, "Every company which has succeeded in becoming the world-class standard of quality in its field has organised into teams to enable employees to take greater responsibility for their own work." (7) (7) www.tql-nav...qlpub/needteam.txt Michelle Armit Organisational Behaviour Coursework 21/03/03 Page 1 of 7 ...read more.

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