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# GCSE: Accounting & Finance

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## How to calculate 'break even'

1. 1 There are three ways this can be done. All will give the same answer which is the number of products the business must make or sell to ‘break even’. This means they receive as much revenue as their costs.
2. 2 A break even table will list the fixed cost, variable cost, total cost (fixed plus variable cost), revenue and profit or loss for each level of output. As profit or loss is the revenue minus the total cost this can be calculated relatively easily, especially if you use a spreadsheet program..
3. 3 A break even graph plots the total cost and revenue for all the levels of output. Where the total cost and revenue intersect is the break even point. This can be easily produced from the table using the chart wizard.
4. 4 The break even formula gives you the break even output. The formula is fixed cost divided by the price of one unit minus the variable cost.
5. 5 The margin of safety is the number of items being produced, over and above the break even point.

## What is cash flow?

1. 1 Cash flow looks at the cash flowing through a business. It is not the same as the profit being made as businesses may be receiving goods on credit or giving credit to customers. This means that although a business may be profitable, it may still run out of cash. This could cause the business to go bankrupt.
2. 2 A cash flow forecast predicts the flow of cash going through the business. A business may use it to see if there are any months when it will run out of cash.
3. 3 Knowing that it may run out of cash in any month means that a business can plan for this by possibly arranging a bank overdraft.
4. 4 A bank overdraft is an agreement arranged with a bank whereby if the business runs out of cash, the bank will lend it money to keep it trading. This overdraft will normally be at a high rate of interest but is better for a business than running out of cash.
5. 5 A business may also cover a period of negative cash flow by deferring payment to suppliers or getting payment early from customers.

## What could be a source of finance?

1. 1 Many students go wrong when discussing sources of finance by not relating them to the size of the business or the reason they need it. A new business starting up has different needs to an existing business looking to expand.
2. 2 Sources of finance available to sole traders and partnerships include the owner’s funds, borrowing from friends and relatives, bank borrowing or funds from venture capitalists that specialise in lending to new businesses.
3. 3 A problem for sole traders and partnerships is unlimited liability. This means that the owner is responsible for all the debts of the business, not just the amount they have invested.
4. 4 Private limited companies and public limited companies have limited liability. This means that investors in the businesses can only lose the amount they have invested. This makes it much easier for them to raise finance as people are more likely to lend to them knowing the maximum amount they can lose.
5. 5 A benefit of selling shares compared with borrowing from the bank is that the money does not need to be repaid. Share holders will expect a share of the profits. With a loan, the amount borrowed has to be repaid with interest.

• Marked by Teachers essays 5
• Peer Reviewed essays 7
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1. ## Cash flow. A cash flow forecast is a document that predicts cash requirements in the future. It helps a business save money for things it may need in the future

4 star(s)

A business can improve their financial situation by borrowing money from a bank, cutting costs or increasing sales. Businesses use cash flow forecasting to anticipate months where they may have a shortfall and get ready for them by taking action before they happen. It may help the business if they identify areas where the business was weak or strong and change strategy to deal with any problems and maximise potential. The five parts of a cash flow forecast are: Receipts, payments, excess of receipts over payments, opening bank balance and closing bank balance. Cash Inflow: This section shows how much the business (in this case, a garden centre)

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2. ## Financial analysis for a new business - Delight Lollies

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Examples of start up costs are premises, machinery, equipment, fixtures and fittings and market research to start up the business. Running Costs- Running costs are paid everyday to run the business, examples of these are wages, bills, raw materials and insurance. Fixed Variable Rent �40 Each Box purchased each day: �5.50 License for Trade �20 Block of Ice �50 Delivery Charge (weekly) �14 Total �124 Total : �27.50 Overall Total: �151.50 Fixed Variable Rent �40 Each Box purchase �55 License of Trade �20 Block of Ice �50 Delivery Charge �14 Overall Total: �399 Task Two The following section I will be explaining the importance of costs, revenues and profits.

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If all the products together make enough contribution then the business will make a profit. Fixed & Variable Fixed costs are costs which do not vary. They are mostly indirect costs - Management salaries, telephone bills and office rent.

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4. ## The collapse of energy giant Enron.

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But the company's success, were based on artificial inflated profits, dubious accounting practices, and some say fraud. The firm's success turned out to have involved an elaborate scam. Enron lied about its profits and stands accused of a range of shady dealings, including concealing debts. The profits eventually did not show up in the company's accounts. As the depth of deception unfolded investors and creditors retreated, forcing the firm into bankruptcy in December For Enron employees and retirees themselves, the consequences were crystal clear from the day the company crumbled. To put it simple, they lost their savings.

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5. ## For this task I am going to compare three different types of loans which are provided by Halifax, NatWest and Alliance and Leicester. I have chosen to get a loan from these banks because they are reliable.

3 star(s)

NatWest Personal Loan NatWest offer a selection of loan products tailored to meet our customers' varying needs. So, whether you're looking to buy a new car or conservatory, need a financial boost during your studies or require a helping hand as a graduate, they're there to help. Their rate for fixed-rate personal loans of �10,000 or more is just 7.4% APR typical. I have chosen to take up a loan from Alliance and Leicester because they have the lowest interest rate of the three, which means I won't have to pay as much interest as I would to NatWest or Halifax.

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6. ## Depreciation of fixed assets.

3 star(s)

This is called depreciation. Each accountants must work how much depreciation to allow each fixed assets. This can then be used in the balance sheet and profit and loss account. The balance sheet will show the book value the book value of assets. This is their original value minus depreciation.

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7. ## Cash Flow for The Sea View Hotel. Evaluate how using cash flow forecasts and financial recording systems can contribute to managing business finances at The Sea View Hotel:

They have an irregular inflow for the refurbishments (�12000), but they spent over the money given (�15000), so more money went out than money went in. Task 3 Describe how each of the following financial transactions/documents could be recorded in order to prevent fraud in The Sea View Hotel: * Order Form: The purpose of the order form is to order goods from a supplier. It is completed by the buyer who then sends it on the company selling the required goods.

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8. ## Finance for a new business. Mischa and Claire will need money to get them started. There are two basic costs linked with starting a new business, capital costs and start-up working capital.

Bank Loans - this is where money is borrowed for a fixed period and repayments (including interest) are paid monthly. Normally, banks ask for some sort of personal security, such as the owner's property which they could claim if the business defaulted on the loan. The government has setup a Small Firms Loan Guarantee system to help businesses which cannot provide security. Often, banks will offer new businesses incentives to open an account and provide an adviser. Grants and Loans - there are several types of grants and special loans available from local, national and European governments.

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9. ## Profit and Loss Account

2. Cheque: A cheque is usually the best way for a business to make payments (to other businesses) and receive payments from others. A cheque will also provide a record of any transaction that takes place. 3. Recording money coming into a business and going out of a business: Henry will need to use a two column cash book that will record payments he makes and payments he receives. Task 2 Part 2 / Part 3 / Part 4 In this section I will carry out the various financials that my DJ business will have to carry out in order to operate or function effectively.

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10. ## Financing a new business

Term Definition Overdraft When you owe bank money and your balance is in minuses. Bank loans When you borrow money from a bank and pay it back with interest. Mortgages including remortgage of own house When you borrow money to buy a house (like the bank buying you a house) and you paying it back with interest normally per month. Loans from friends and family When you borrow money from people you know so normally comes with minimal risk as you can probably pay them when it suits you.

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11. ## Availability of Finance

By doing this the payment is delayed between 1-3 months. Leasing: The renting of perhaps: equipments, machinery and premises. Leasing is paid by parts(instalments) over a period of time normally within 1-3 years. Sale and lease back: In this case the business sells one of its main buildings to a financial institution and then leases it back from them by paying a rent. Businesses sell one of their main buildings to a financial association. Thereafter it is leased back from them by paying rent.

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12. ## Cash-Flow and its use

If the business is making loss, cash flow forecast could be used to identify the problem by looking at the various out flow of the business and observing why are they higher than the cash inflow. JJ Supermarket receives its revenue (cash inflow) from sales of stock, capitals owner etc. JJ Supermarket will also have outflow from the business because in order to run a business they will have to pay for things like purchase of stock, business rates, electricity, advertisings etc.

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13. ## Business GCSE unit 1 A3

The company would also be able to continue despite the death, resignation or bankruptcy of management and members. Alton Towers could become dependant and not be a part of MEG, although I don't think this is a good idea because they might not get as many customers because other MEG attractions would not be advertising them, also MEG pay for things in the park and Alton Towers may not be able to cover the costs alone. On the other hand Alton Towers could do things without having to make a decision with MEG.

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14. ## In this assignment I will illustrate in a report the financial state of Domestic Dog Homes by use of accounting ratios. The ratios I will be using are: -Solvency -Profitability -Performance

The Acid test ratio formulae show us how the business can pay its liabilities without selling stock. Acid test ratio formulae: Acid test ratio = Current assets - Stock / Current liabilities Domestic Dog Home Acid test ratio: 1.46 = 40275 - 16300 / 16367 Profitability Equation Gross Profit Percentage To work out the Gross profit percentage you have to divide the gross profit with the turnover and multiply it by 100. The Gross Profit Percentage shows how well the business is managing its spending on stock.

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15. ## Cash Flow Problem (Creative Letter)

is because it is winter time and so your business may not be busy at this period of time. It is very important to fix this cash flow problem because if we do not fix this cash flow problem your business will not be able to make daily transactions and will be soon in a liquidity crisis. So, to solve this problem there are many solutions which can be put into action. Firstly, the obvious method to decrease cash outflow would be to reduce expenditure to improve your cash flow. The steps you can take in order to reduce expenditure are asking for a longer credit from your suppliers, so that you have time to pay for your expenses until cash is available.

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16. ## Why Businesses Use Cash Flows

Businesses will always endeavour to achieve a positive cash balance which happens when the income is greater than the outgoings. It also helps to plan for large, future purchases within the business. If they were to build an extension, buy more delivery vehicles or invest in another product idea then they can use the forecast to predict the totals costs such ventures will involve and whether they would be able to afford it.

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17. ## Alternative methods of investing 50,000

This is not a significant difference. Savings Account- Lloyds TSB has an interest rate of 3.27%. HSBC has a higher interest rate of 3.75%, which would mean I would receive �52375 instead of �51860. That means that I would earn an extra �515 with HSBC. Internet Account- HSBC has a rate of 4.75%. The rate is so high as Internet accounts can be maintained from a computer and do not require many staff or big premises. Lloyds TSB has an interest rate of 4.30%. Investing the money in the stock market by buying shares is very risky.

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18. ## Alternative ways of Monitoring share prices.

The Disadvantages of having an agent is that his services cost a lot of money. The third way I could be monitoring my shares price is on the newspapers, the good thing about this that they are very reliable. The news papers that have stock prices are on broadsheets like The Times, The daily Mirror, Financial times and The Guardian etc. The Advantages of them is that it is easy to buy a newspaper and they are very reliable, there aren't many disadvantages, the costs aren't a lot but give or take, and you're still wasting income on it especially if you buy 1 every week/day.

• Word count: 910
19. ## Explain and justify methods used to identify the target market for the proposed business.

Also, it is unique information, fresh so I can make improvement straight away. In addition, competitors can not use this information as it my information which I have gathered. There are a few disadvantages to collecting primary research and they are that it is very expensive to gather. This is because I am starting from scratch and need all the resources and equipment to produce surveys and hand them out. Another method I am going to do is visits to similar businesses to see what my competition is.

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20. ## Sources of Finance

Without finance a business would find it difficult to accomplish anything, for example someone who decided to start up a shop would need finance at first to just buy the shop and the stock. Here is a table of the internal and external sources of finance which categorise them into short, medium or long term finances. Short term Medium term Long term Bank overdrafts Bank loans Bank loans (20 years more) Short term bank loans (2 years) Hire purchase Share capital Trade credit Leasing Debentures Venture capital Government Grants Sale of assets An asset is money which will help start up a business.

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21. ## Describe the following features of their two chosen businesses.

food, forestry and mining for materials); client services (eg financial, health care, leisure and sport, internet access); Other services (eg transport and communications). The Reasons for Trends Businesses are attracted towards profitable activities and away from unprofitable activities. Customer tastes and preferences change just like fashion etc. Number of people employed in an activity will vary as people are getting put out of jobs and also things are now made by robots to make cars eg the Picasso Car advertisement.

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22. ## financial recording system

This will help the JJ Supermarket know that there business is successful and it will help them know if their business is going to go in loss or not. > Cash flow forecast gives the business clearly the time through which business will have trouble surviving like if their out flow exceeds certain limitations. This will help them to take steps which would improve the future of the business. > It checks if the business is performing consistently or not, any odd figures in the cash flow fore cast could be identified by observing and fix it to help business improve.

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23. ## The car race - creative writing.

Then I went to Zara's house to tell her the news. "You did what!" said Zara after I told her about what I did. "You're going to be the only girl there and if you loose then well it'll be embarrassing for all of us and not just you!" "But if I win then well we'll show the boys that we girls can beat them and then they won't be so stuck-up all the times!" I exclaimed, banging my fist to show my frustration. Zara, I noticed was looking doubtful. "You don't believe that I can beat the boys do you!"

• Word count: 832
24. ## Coke v Pepsi WACC

(1,475,000,000) = \$64,619,750,000 Next we need to find the value of debt for each company. Market value is generally the best way to achieve this, but because we were not given the number of outstanding shares the book value is sufficient. This is acceptable because neither company has experienced a significant change in credit ratings in the recent years. We look to the Balance Sheets of both companies and use the most recent year (2001). The main contributors to Book Value of Debt are Notes Payable, the Current Portion of Long Term Debt, and Long Term Debt.

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25. ## Research on sources of finance in a business

� Type of the Business. � Where the business is in terms of its development. � Whether it is a profitable business. Internal Finance Internal Finance can be profit that has been retained, squeezed out of working capital, or can be cash from sale of assets. This is money that was already within the business. External Finance External Finance for day-to-day working capital is trade credit, bank overdrafts, and debt factoring. This is money from outside the firms own resources. Retained Profit Once the business starts to generate sales it will hopefully make some profit.

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## Conclusion analysis

Good conclusions usually refer back to the question or title and address it directly - for example by using key words from the title.

1. Do they use key words from the title or question?
2. Do they answer the question directly?
3. Can you work out the question or title just by reading the conclusion?
• Compare the two companies Tesco's and McDonalds

"McDonalds first opened in 1974. More than 2.5 million people in this country trust McDonalds to give them food of a high standard, quick service and value for money. In my opinion McDonalds create a high standard of customer satisfaction. My reason for thinking is this because customer convenience and research is driving force behind new restaurant locations - which had led to new McDonalds in sites as varied as cross- channel ferries, a bowling alley and London's former county hall. Currently there are more than 1000 McDonald's restaurants throughout the UK. McDonald's business activity External Influences and the Stakeholder Model: McDonald's - Activity Image: Business has not been going as well for McDonald's in recent years because it is struggling to keep up with the demands being made to it. There are a number of Activities("

• Assess the contribution of set and lighting to

"In conclusion, the contribution of set and lighting in the play 'The Smallest Person' on their own was basic and failed to create an atmosphere that could affect the audience. However together, there was quite different effect as the two conventions worked together to find an equilibrium of their imbalances and achieve a good affect upon the audience. Khushwant Bhakar 12Jr"

• Auditing is becoming an increasingly expensive part of the management of health care. Discuss the role it plays in the financial management of a hospital, and comment on the value this adds.

"13. Conclusions The impact of US scandals have made auditing a high profile subject. The primary purpose of audit within the public sector remains to demonstrate the appropriate use of resources. It is important that the perception of the public and Parliament, through the PAC, are satisfied. In specific terms the future of audit is uncertain, however, given the facts identified in this report the demand for and the costs of auditing public sector organisations are likely to become more difficult to control. A key element in delivering effective audit will be the supply of a skilled audit workforce. There may be scope and a need for recruiting people from different professional backgrounds in order to support audit processes."