• Join over 1.2 million students every month
• Accelerate your learning by 29%
• Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month
Page
1. 1
1
2. 2
2
3. 3
3
4. 4
4
5. 5
5
6. 6
6
7. 7
7
8. 8
8
9. 9
9
10. 10
10

# CAPM and its significance

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

CAPM and its significance Introduction In almost every economics textbooks (Ben and Robert, 2001), economists tend to argue: everything's market price is determined by consumers' demand and supply in the market, the intersection of which gives us the long-term concept of 'market equilibrium'. Although it sounds straightforward, it is anything but easy in practice, especially when the assets (like common stock) you are measuring associated with risk and future uncertainties. Fortunately, economists and financial analysts have developed plenty of theories to help us explain how the risk for market assets can be appropriately measured in our life. Capital Asset Pricing Model ('CAPM') is one of the most influential and applicable models, which give good explanations and predictions of 'market price for risk'. This essay is going to look at what the CAPM really is, how it is derived and used, and will also see some limitations of applying it in practice. Assumptions First of all, we have to make some assumptions here, as the CAPM is developed in a hypothetical world, as written in the theory of business finance (Archer and Ambrosio, 1970): * Investors are risk-averse individuals who maximize the expected utility of their end-period wealth. * Investors are price takers and have homogeneous expectations about asset returns that have a joint normal distribution. * There exists a risk-free asset such that investors may borrow or lend unlimited amounts at the risk free rate. * The quantities of assets are fixed. ...read more.

Middle

Therefore, the percentage 'a' in the above equations is the excess demand for an individual risky asset, where it should be equal to zero. Simplifying previous equations, by substituting 'a = 0', we could get: ?E(Rp) / ?a = E(Ri) - E(Rm) -------1 ??(Rp)/ ?a = (?im - ?m2) / ?m --------2 Then, by dividing equation '1' by '2', we could arrive at the slope of the risk-return trade-off evaluated at point M, in the market equilibrium, is By the same token, as the capital market line is also an equilibrium relationship, given market efficiency, the tangency portfolio must be the market portfolio where all assets are held according to their market value weights. We can use the same method to derive the slope of the capital market line shown as follow: E(Rm) - Rf ?m (Where ?m is the standard deviation of the market portfolio) In the tangency point (pint 'T' in the graph), the slope of market efficient portfolio curve should be equal to the slope of capital market line. Therefore, by equating the slopes together and rearranging, the final relationship can be obtained: E(Ri) = Rf + [R(Rm) - Rf] ?im / ?m2 This is known as the Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM). The equation is also shown graphically below, where it is also called the security market line. The 'BETA' here is simply the covariance between returns on risky asset and market portfolio. ...read more.

Conclusion

In addition, empirical testing of the CAPM and the birth of post form, which introduce errors in the end of the equation, suggested that although the CAPM does not conform to the reality, it does give accurate long-term predictions and trends of what is going on in the real financial market. For short, the Capital Asset Pricing Model is the best-known model of risk and return, which is plausible and widely used but far from perfect. Conclusion All in all, although the CAPM is imperfect, it does give us significant implications and ideas of 'how risk is measured and priced in the market'. It also helps us with investment decision-makings and corporate policies. Therefore, having recognized its problems, we should accept it as the 'one of the best but imperfect solutions'. Bibliographies Archer, S. and Ambrosio, C. (1970). The theory of business finance. The McMillan company. New York. Brealey, R. and Myers, S. (2003). Principles of Corporate Finance. McGraw - Hill. Brian, B. and Butler, D. (1993). A dictionary of Finance and Banking. Oxford University Press Ben, S. and Robert, H. (2001). Principles of Economics. McGraw-Hill. New York. Copeland, T and Weston, J. (1946). Financial theory and corporate policy. Addison-Wesley publishing company. USA. Frank, R. (2003). Microeconomics and behaviour. McGraw - Hill. Markowitz, H. (1952). 'Portfolio Selection'. Journal of Finance. 7:77 - 91 March. Horne, V. (1983). Financial management and policy. Prentice-Hall International. Sharpe, W. (1964). 'Capital Asset Prices: a theory of market equilibrium under conditions of risk.' Journal of Finance. 19: 425 - 442 (September). ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE Economy & Economics section.

## Found what you're looking for?

• Start learning 29% faster today
• 150,000+ documents available
• Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
• Join over 1.2 million students every month
• Accelerate your learning by 29%
• Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

# Related GCSE Economy & Economics essays

1. ## Retailing In India - A Government Policy Perspective

As a consequence these players often end up borrowing fornm the informal financial markets, where lending rates could be as high as 3% per month. Compare this to the forign players who may be able to access funds at as low as 5-6% per year.

2. ## This report will establish the opportunities and threats presented to Sony by the EU ...

Sony has set up EICC (European Information Consultation Council) where staff can discuss issues with management relating to changes they would like to be seen concerning Sony. This does motivate employees because they feel part of Sony due to their grievances are being dealt with and they work in teams

1. ## Option Pricing Models

technique reduces the number of sources of risk that need to be accounted for. Research Objectives 1. To examine the function of the Black-Scholes model and some new models developed from it in modern financial market. 2. To develop the models with less assumptions.

2. ## Economics Portfolio

Citing his talks with leading Indian government officials, including Prime Minister Manmohan Singh, he said the government was considering opening up foreign direct investment (FDI) to retailers. "In our six government meetings, we created a very positive image [of Wal-Mart] in what we think is a very important future market," Menzer said.

1. ## Transaction Cost Theory

There is not unanimity on this issue. Alchian and Demsetz (1972) argued that technological nonseparability is the main factor responsible for the existence of firms. This refers, for example, to essential cooperation among workers in order to load freight. The firm exists to monitor, measure and allocate the benefits of team performance.

2. ## An Empirical Investigation into the Causes and Effects of Liquidity in Emerging

In 'bad' times (economic contraction and high default rates) they are sensitive only to stock returns. Copeland and Galai (1983) looked at the trade off that market makers must make in deciding how best to optimise their positions. Market makers try to set a bid-ask spread, which will maximise the difference between expected revenues, from liquidity motivated traders and expected losses to information motivated traders.

1. ## Scarcity and Unlimited Wants.

People usually want to leave countries (voluntary emigration) for two reasons: 1. Push factors which include high unemployment, low living standards or poor climate in their own country. 2. Pull factors which include good job prospects and high living standards in a new country. Population Structure Population Structure by Sex and Age Population pyramids can be used to show the sex and age structure of a particular country.

2. ## Compare and contrast, the assumptions, the predictions and the policy implications of the IS/LM ...

from I1 to I2 and fall in savings i.e. from S1 to S2, thus the equilibrium national income will be at point 'b', Y2. Taking these assumptions into account and IS curve from figure-1, we can say that higher interest rates are associated with lower national income and vice-versa.

• Over 160,000 pieces
of student written work
• Annotated by
experienced teachers
• Ideas and feedback to