• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Content and process theories of motivation

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Content and process theories of motivation Introduction into motivation In this essay the writer is going to explore the concept of motivation, this is hopefully going to be achieved through exploration of the complex and variable nature of needs and expectations. Formal and informal theories of motivation will be discussed, focussing on the former. Mainly but this will involve mainly the formal theories because these are the ones that content and process theories fall under. Content and process theories of motivation will be evaluated with particular emphasis on the links between motivation and leadership. The writer will compare the various content theories and process theories. Finally writer also aims to compare the various content theories and process theories this will be done by brief illustration of the main ones and analysis of the most influential ones since some of the theories are similar in nature. Motivation is one of the most crucial skill that a manager needs to have it is the reason why it has to be studied it could be described as a leadership skill because a good leader has to be able to motivate their staff; firstly we need to know what motivation is. Motivation is " a set of processes that moves a person towards a goal, thus motivated behaviours are voluntary choices controlled by the individual employee." The reason an employer motivates their employees is to get the most out of them as in better work quality because there is a link between motivation and performance better motivated staff will put in more effort. ...read more.

Middle

As influential as Maslow's theory is it has been argued that his work was not intended for a work situation this will reduce the validity of his work when applied to work situations but in the writers opinion it cannot fully be relied upon on its own for effective motivation in an organisation. This is because Another content theory was done by Alderfer (1972) who used the same ideology that needs where arranged in order of levels and where arranged in the form of a hierarchy but his theory had one main exception it condensed Maslow's hierarchy into 3 levels from the 5 that Maslow had stated where. These where existence needs just like Maslow's lower level needs are the basic human functions these are physiological desires e.g. food. Relatedness needs these are the needs to form relationships in a work situation this would be a need to form friendships or bond with your work colleagues. Like Alderfer, also Fredrick Herzberg realised the importance of work relationships as he stated "The research on existence of social groupings among lower level workers and the discovery that these groupings are highly functional on those levels has helped the trend to an insistence on group activity in many areas in which it is far from appropriate"(Herzberg, 1959,pg129). Here it is seem the similarities between the two theories as the two theorists both have stated differently but the general idea is that people have a need to bond at work Herzberg in his theory described it in the sense of social groups and their effect on individuals and Alderfer also suggested, "These needs are more a continuum than a hierarchal levels." ...read more.

Conclusion

The amount of motivation the individual has will depend on how badly they want to achieve their goals. This although is a process theory and is about expectations it is also very tightly linked with the content theory of motivation as they work together hand in hand. The individual has a expectation of an out come of putting in effort but the extent to which they are motivated also depends on what needs have to be satisfied, which is a content theory. Conclusion These are all theories on motivation but at the end of the day they are all theories so it would be fair to say they are guidelines on motivating staff. Application of motivational theories might be easier than the actual identification of what motivates a particular individual, what is their driving force and which is the most effective way of helping them in the search for satisfaction of their needs. When you apply they them a lot of variables must be considered there was one thing common as a weakness in all theories and that is how individual differences play a part in motivation. This is because no matter what theory you apply individuals have too many needs to all be satisfied it might work in small organisations but in big ones a manager cannot identify the dominant need in each and every individual. Referencing Human resource Management, 5th Ed Management and organisational behaviour Management and introduction People Management and Development A motivation to work http://www.canberra.edu.au/uc/lectures/mantech/manpol/sem972/unit4207/Motivation.html - 1 - ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE People in Business section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related GCSE People in Business essays

  1. Business at Work - ASDA

    Participants will test products, which have been produced by Asda and maybe one or some by their competitor. The participants will not know which product is Asda's and which one is the competitor. The consumer service officer will then ask which product the participants liked and why.

  2. What is the purpose of management theory? Explain how knowledge to understanding of management ...

    He saw the basic problem as the balancing of an organization's requirements with its resources. The larger the business, the more difficult this became: 'when ambition, nepotism, favoritisms or merely ignorance, has multiplied positions without good reason or filled them with incompetent employees, much talent and strength of will and more persistence ...

  1. Analysis of a Contract Specific Organisation

    procedures / thresholds of financial approval We would mitigate any or all of the above exposures by ensuring that we only let work to bonafide companies with the appropriate PI cover. Also we would again mitigate any risk by ensuring works are adequately specified and clearly understood by the works contractors, with a written confirmation of this.

  2. What is Motivation?

    Intrinsic motivation includes the internal drive to perform well at a particular task, for example a college course. It could be pursued purely for its own sake, pleasure and enjoyment. The achievement of a personal goal, 'I'm going to pass this test,' a personal accomplishment.

  1. How Does Motivation Theory Explain The Reality Of Employee Motivation At Morton's Of Horncastle ...

    In terms of satisfying the basic needs, Morton's endeavours to satisfy them and their success is clearly recognised by the fact that in a recent staff survey only 17% of employees wanted more money to do a better job. Morton's allows flexible hours, which enables their employees to balance their

  2. manging theories and globalization

    In 1917 he introduced the fourteen principles of management in French and then later on published them in English in 1949. (Wikipedia Encyclopaedia 2006). Fayol's fourteen principles were a great beginning in defining what management should consider doing in general, especially throughout the industrial age where it was extensively utilised.

  1. Organisations and Behaviour

    says "Taylor's greatest impact may still be ahead .... The need to study Taylor anew and apply him may be the greatest in the developed countries" suggesting that we may still need to use this theory in present day organisations. Moving on into the 1920's brought Webber and Fayol with their classical administration/bureaucracy approach to management.

  2. Management Theories

    Frederick Winslow Taylor (1856-1915) was born in Pennsylvania, USA, and began work at the age of 18 as an apprentice to a pattern-maker. He later joined the Midvale Steel Company as a labourer, but within eight years had risen to the position of chief engineer.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work