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Decline in Full Time Working.

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Introduction

Decline in Full Time Working Q. 1. [a] What is meant by: (i) "flexible working" (ii) "rationalisation" (4 marks) Q. 1. [b] Examine the possible disadvantages for businesses of "increased feelings of job insecurity amongst employees". (7 marks) Q. 1. [c] Many companies find that their existing employees do not have the appropriate skills for the future. Analyse how a company may overcome this problem. (9 marks) Q. 1. [d] To what extent would the work of motivation theorists explain the new approach to women at work adopted by Asda and The Midland Bank? (8 marks) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . A. 1. [a] (i) Flexible working indicates the ability and willingness to change methods of working. 'Numerical flexibility' indicates a firm's ability to change the number and type of worker-hours in order to meet demand for its products and services efficiently - it is usually achieved by moving away from 'full-time' employment for all employees and a move towards more part-time working, temporary and fixed-term contracts of employment and sub-contracting of work. ...read more.

Middle

Within the economy at large, an increased feeling of job insecurity amongst workers is likely to reduce consumer confidence generally. This is likely to cause many workers to borrow less, spend less and save a higher percentage of their income (for a 'rainy day'). This will reduce Consumption (and thus Aggregate Demand) in the economy and will mean that firms will find it more difficult to sell the same amount of their products at existing prices, which is likely to reduce their profits. A. 1. [c] Firms need to begin by carrying out a skills audit in order to discover what skills their existing workers already possess. Then they need to do some market research as a start to forecasting future demand. Once they have these two vital pieces of information they can begin their workforce planning for the future. If the firms find that their existing workforce do not have the appropriate skills for the future, then they have a number of possible solutions that they could pursue. The first of these is to increase on-the-job and off the job re-training for existing staff. This will mean that the firm can keep employees that it knows and who are familiar with the culture of the firm. ...read more.

Conclusion

However, though the new approach adopted to women at work by Asda and The Midland Bank can largely be explained by their desire to motivate these employees and by their having been persuaded by the arguments of the human relations and neo human relations schools of thought, it ought to be mentioned that, in the opinion of one school of thought, their 'new' approach would not deliver the increased motivation that they obviously want. According to Taylor and the Scientific Management school of thought, money is the way to motivate workers. Indeed, it might be thought that the real reason for some women returning to the workplace is their need for money. It is also possible that Asda and The Midland Bank have embarked upon their new approach to women at work, not because they have been convinced by the theoretical arguments of some of the motivational theorists like Mayo, Maslow or Herzberg, but because of the introduction of increasing amounts of legislation on equal opportunities and sex discrimination. If the firms feel that something might be imposed on them in the fairly near future, then they might decide that it is preferable to bring in necessary changes, in their own way, now - rather than be forced into making hurried decisions and working practice changes later. Page 1 ...read more.

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