• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month
Page
  1. 1
    1
  2. 2
    2
  3. 3
    3
  4. 4
    4
  5. 5
    5
  6. 6
    6
  7. 7
    7
  8. 8
    8
  9. 9
    9
  10. 10
    10
  11. 11
    11
  12. 12
    12
  13. 13
    13
  14. 14
    14
  15. 15
    15
  16. 16
    16
  17. 17
    17

Exchange rate.

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

ECONOMICS ASSIGNMENT 2 EXCHANGE RATE A) What factors determine currency exchange rates? Exchange rate is often referred to as the nominal exchange rate. It is defined as the rate at which one currency can be converted, or 'exchanged', into another currency. For example, the pound is currently worth about 1.824 US dollars. One pound can be converted into 1.824 dollars. This is the exchange rate between the pound and the dollar. There are four types of currencies can be operated, which are a floating, managed and fixed exchange rate. Lots of developed industrial nations like US ($), UK (�) and Japan (�) operate floating exchange rates. A floating exchange rate is known as freely floating and should be self-regulating. It is often determined by the market demand and supply without any other government or official interference. As the exchange rate between pound and dollar for example, the price of pound in terms of dollar would decided by the demand for pounds from whom hold dollars and the supply of pounds from sterling holder who want to buy dollars. When people in the UK try to buy US goods and services they will supply pounds to US, however, when people from US try to by UK goods and services they will demand UK pounds. At this time, the price which keeps the demand and supply force in balance is the exchange rate between pound and dollar. As it shows in Price of �s in $s S D $1.5 (FIGURE 1.1) D S 0 Q Quantity of �s figure1.1, when one pound equals one and a half dollars, the price is in equilibrium. Although floating exchange rate is mainly affect by market forces, actually sometimes a nation's central bank try to influence the exchange rate. They can use the way of adjusting the interest rate to influence the capital flow into or out of the country or directly buying or selling the currency. ...read more.

Middle

When people in the UK try to buy US goods and services they will supply pounds to US, however, when people from US try to by UK goods and services they will demand UK pounds. At this time, the price which keeps the demand and supply force in balance is the exchange rate between pound and dollar. As it shows in figure1.6, when one pound equals one and a half dollars, the price is in equilibrium. Figure 1.6 The floating exchange rate has several advantages. Firstly as it has stated before, floating exchange rates can adjust automatically to trade imbalances, which will remove the trade imbalance. If the value of a county' imports are greater than its exports, the supply of its currency will exceed the demand for it. As a result its currency will depreciate. Moreover, its exports are cheaper in terms of foreign currency and its imports are more expensive in terms of its own currency. Of course, it has also been noted that a floating exchange rate does not always keep balance of trade in the real world because so few currency transactions are for trade. Secondly, foreign reserves are basically used to maintain a currency within a fixed exchange rate. In theory, if a currency is freely floating, then there is no need for government to use reserves to affect its value. But In the real world, it is very likely to have an emergency in the balance of payments; in order to deal it government will always have some reserves. Otherwise, when they feel that their currency is getting a bit too high or too low they also can solve it in time. Third, a floating exchange rate gives more freedom to government to run their own domestic economic policy. If the government is not controlling their exchange rate, then they can control their rate of interest. And the interest rates do not have to be set to keep the value of the exchange rate within a certain bands. ...read more.

Conclusion

It can loss the control of independence policy. The single currency members neither can control an independent interest rate policy nor control the money supply because the monetary policy is determined by the European Central Bank. It reduces independence of fiscal policy. Euro members still have part independence on controlling the fiscal policy. Their fiscal policy is allowed to change if their budget deficits do not exceed 3% of the country's GDP. It can not devalue independently. The devaluation for the Euro members is effectiveness for instance; it cannot increase the price competitiveness of its good and services. Individual government loses its policy instrument. Misalignment can happen if joining in a single currency. Not all the EU members can get benefit form an exchange rate or interest rate. As UK for example, it has so much differences from the rest of the EU- it is a second most importer exporter of services in the world and it has the most trades than other EU members. I t can have asymmetric policy sensitivity. Different from other EU members, in the UK, the most borrowing is at variable rate. If there is a rise in interest, UK will have a greater impact on its borrowers. It has regional problems. There is a risk exist in the regional differences. Firm will move to the prosperous areas. Before considering joining the single currency the UK Labour government has set five conditions to meet, as it mentions in SJ Grant's book 'STANLAKE'S INTRODUCTORY ECONOMICS' 1999, page 496, they are Membership must be expected to create better conditions for companies to invest in the UK The effect on the UK's financial services industry would have to be beneficial. There must be a convergence of European business cycles and economic structure. There must be sufficient flexibility for the system to cope with economic change and shocks. Membership must be good for jobs and economic growth. ?? ?? ?? ?? EMF1 WANG LI LI 1 ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE Economy & Economics section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related GCSE Economy & Economics essays

  1. Retailing In India - A Government Policy Perspective

    In fact this is already happening, with retailers opting for less investment-intensive and, therefore, less risky propositions. 3. Non-level playing field issues Counter stores in India have several advantages vis-�-vis large chain retailers. This is due to differential implementation of laws (labor, taxation)

  2. Case Study: The Home Depot

    The first one is the economy. Although the US economy is not running that well nowadays, that is not a very bad thing because a lot of products of Home Depot are recession proof. Home Depot should focus on these kinds of products. Technical advancement is another item that stimulated the growth of the home improvement industry.

  1. Discuss the policy options the Australian Government can use to achieve external stability

    Monetary policy may be used as a short term instrument to address an external imbalance crisis; however, it is not regarded as an effective tool to address underlying external stability problems. While raising interest rates may reduced import spending in the short term, it also attracts financial inflow on the

  2. Review of Strong Interest Inventory.

    To report results, choose from detailed narrative analysis to streamlined graphical profiles. You can even generate Progress reports at no extra charge for many assessments. Assessment results and other related information can be organized, stored, and regenerated in a variety of ways to meet your specific needs.

  1. Critically evaluate the perceived competitive starategies of the five clothing retail outlets, namely Edgars, ...

    & FOREIGN COMMERCIAL SERVICE AND U.S. DEPARTMENT OF STATE, 1998. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED OUTSIDE OF THE UNITED STATES SUMMARY The textile and apparel industry is South Africa's sixth largest the manufacturing sector employer and eleventh largest exporter of manufactured goods. After the mines, it is the second largest user of electricity and second largest source of tax revenue.

  2. What might cause an appreciation of a floating exchange rate? Discuss whether an appreciation ...

    When the interest rates of a country rise, savers abroad may shift their saving funds from foreign banks to UK banks. This "interest differential" boosts the demand for the currency and can cause its value to rise. This is likely to be short term, as savers will switch to different

  1. This report will establish the opportunities and threats presented to Sony by the EU ...

    Sweden: home to world class multinationals with a populace of 8,861.4 million. Sweden's GDP per head is $25,826 also compared to cost of living in PPP it is $19,588. Many companies have established headquarters in Sweden e.g. Ericsson which fuel Swedish domestic concerns that it is becoming a trend.

  2. Kingfisher is the largest home improvement retailer in Europe and the third largest in ...

    years, which can mislead potential investors, compare with the rate of inflation as the stated turnover decrease in 2004 was actually 4.19% higher than reported (figure 10). Table 6 This shows how Kingfisher's operating profit figures of the last five years compare with the rate of inflation as operating profits

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work