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In an ideal world businesses should plan ahead when it comes to human resources. A well-organized business will have forecasts and projections of its future staffing needs. These

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Introduction

Human resources means when a business has a forecast and a projection of its future staff needs. This means that the business can develop appropriate strategies for the recruitment, training and development of its staff. Within a small business, with perhaps one or two employees, responsibility for human resources will lie with the owner or with the partners while large organizations with many employees on the other hand, will have a whole section devoted to personnel. The social reformer Before Hr emerged as a specialist management activity there were those in the nineteenth century who tried to intervene in the industrial affairs of the severely under privilege factory worker. At this time they are not employed by the company but rather acted on behalf of fellow workers. The Human bureaucrats We now come to the stage where organizations were increasing in size. Specialization was emerging at management level as well as on the shop floor. This led to the growth of personnel work only involved with staffing, careful selection, training and placement it was believed that by selecting staff with particular skill of the job would ensure the business would run smoothly and staff would be happy. The Negotiator The industrial revolution led the masses of workers to rebel against their treatment and pay. Trade unions forced organization to negotiate for some of the rights of the individual. The government encouraged the appointment of personnel officers to deal with negotiator on behalf. Man power planning Recruitment and selection Training and development Motivation and performance management In an ideal world businesses should plan ahead when it comes to human resources. A well-organized business will have forecasts and projections of its future staffing needs. These will then be matched to forecasts and projections about the local labour market, which means that the business can develop appropriate strategies for the recruitment, training and development of its staff. ...read more.

Middle

* Attainment tests measure an individual's ability using skills they have already acquired. For example, a candidate for an administration post may take a word processing test. * Intelligence tests aim to give an indication of overall 'mental' ability. A variety of questions are asked in such tests covering numeracy and literately skills, as well as general knowledge. It is assumed that a person who scores highly will be able to retain new knowledge and to succeed at work. * Personality tests examine the traits of employees. The use of these depends on whether the business wants to use this method of selection and whether qualified personnel are available to carry out the tests. Such tests do have problems. It is dangerous to assume that there is a standard personality profile of the 'ideal employee'. Another problem is that they rely on an individual being honest. Candidates often try to pick out the answer that is wanted. Also some traits measured by the test will not be relevant in terms of job performance. Training and development Training is the process of instructing an individual about how to carry out tasks directly related to his or her current job it involves employees being taught new skills or improving skills they already have. However, training is not limited to the new employees of the business. Training courses are likely to be targeted at all employees in the restaurant at all stages of their career. Training is very important to a business because if the employees are not correctly trained then they will be inefficient and cause the business not to run smoothly and loose profit. If employees lack in training customers will recognize this and will feel that the business is not sufficient for their needs. Development involves helping an individual to realize his or her full potential. This concerns general growth, and is not related specifically to the employee's existing post. ...read more.

Conclusion

As far as their immediate physiological responses were concerned, the sound of the bell became equivalent to the presentation of the food. McGregor motivational theory Douglas McGregor published "The Human Side of Enterprise" in 1960, in which he suggested that traditional management methods (which he called Theory X) might not be the only way to get people motivated. Instead, you could take a different approach (based on Theory Y) and achieve the same if not more. Theory X is the traditional view of direction and control, based on these assumptions: * The average person inherently dislikes work and will avoid it if at all possible. * As a result, most people have to be coerced, controlled and threatened if they are to put in enough effort to achieve the organization's goals. * In fact the average person prefers to be directed, avoids responsibility, isn't ambitious and simply seeks security. Theory Y based on the integration of individual and organizational goals, assumes: * The physical and mental effort of work is as natural as play or rest, so the average person doesn't inherently dislike work. * We are capable of self-direction and self-control, so those factors don't necessarily have to come from elsewhere. * Our commitment to an objective is a function of the rewards for its achievement. * The average person learns not only to accept but also to seek responsibility. * Most people have a capacity for imagination, ingenuity and creativity. * The intellectual potential of most people is under-used in modern industrial life. Theory Y is not a soft option. In fact it can take as much management effort as Theory X, but the effects of a Theory Y approach will last longer. The Theory X manager is a dying breed (although it has to be said he's not yet extinct), and Theory Y lies behind most modern approaches to motivation. Nowadays the terminology is used as a polite way of referring to the old command-and-control approach to management: the trouble is the diehard Theory X manager won't pick up the subtle criticism! ?? ?? ?? ?? course ...read more.

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