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Industrial-organizational psychologists

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Introduction: Industrial-organizational psychologists apply psychological principles and research methods to the workplace in the interest of improving productivity and the quality of work life. They also are involved in research on management and marketing problems. They conduct applicant screening, training and development, counseling, and organizational development and analysis. An industrial psychologist might work with management to reorganize the work setting to improve productivity or quality of life in the workplace. They frequently act as consultants, brought in by management in order to solve a particular problem. Industrial psychology is a branch of psychology that applies the principles of psychology to the work place. For example, principles of learning are use to develop training programs and incentives plans, principle of social psychology are use to form work groups and understand employee conflict, and principle of motivation and emotion are use to motivate and satisfy employees. The application of psychological is what best distinguishes industrial psychology from related fields typically taught in business colleges. Industrial psychologists consider the interview to be of less value than more suitable alternative such as psychological tests, weighted application blanks, and assessment center (Thayer 1988). Industrial psychology examines factor that affect the people in an organization as oppose to the broader aspects of running an organization such as marketing channel, transportation networks, and accounting (Feldman, 1986). Industrial psychology relies extensively on research, quantitative methods, and testing techniques. ...read more.


New employees with prior job experienced also benefit from training with respect to company policies and practices. Psychologists can make important contributions to the conduct of such programs. Problem concerning training methods, simulation of working condition, and teaching approaches have been of significant concern to psychologists for many years. Industrial training is by no means restricted to new employees. Management may have a number of problems for which a continual program of training for employees already on the job is the only feasible solution. Among these we may simply list as representative the problems of the job enlargement, development of potential supervisory personnel, maintenance and improvement of quality employees to take on new jobs created by an ever-expanding technocracy. Worker Efficiency: This part is concerned with a constellation of factors affecting the efficiency of employees on the jobs, and with certain criteria for appraising worker efficiency. The physical working environment presents a number of problems concerning such things as optimal ventilation, illumination, machine location, and so on. More recently, psychologists have contributed significantly to problems of machine design and the structure if man-machine systems. This activity is particularly critical whenever the complexity of the equipment is such that careless design would strain or exceed human capability. Consider, for example, some of the design problems in developing high-speed aircraft in which a five-second delay during which the pilot fumbles to find a particular lever , knob, button, or dial, may well represent a traveled distance of one mile. ...read more.


Every company is segmented, to some degree, in the management and worker subgroups. The needs and vested interest of these subgroups may, on occasion, be essential conflict erupting as a dispute. Industrial disharmony is always costly both to labor and management. The field of social psychology, in particular, has made noteworthy contributions to understanding the dynamics of such conflict. Consumer Behavior: A company survives consumer buys its product or services. Thus, all parties to the manufactures, distribution, and sale of products or services have vital interest ion predicting and controlling consumer behavior. One of the psychologist's unique contributions in this general area is his application rigorous scientific methods of inquiry to such diverse problems as the size of constituency of markets, the effectiveness of advertising campaigns, consumer reactions to product company manufacturing it, and the needs and motive underlying consumer behavior, to list a few. To the extent that there is psychology of consumer behavior, it has been significantly bolstered by activities of psychologist in the clinical and experimental areas. Motivation researchers to discover the "hidden" or unconscious resons underlying consumer behavior have used clinical tools. Advertising has capitalizes for years upon well-established findings from traditional laboratory-type space research in experimental psychology. More recently considerable attention has been made focused upon the possibility of subliminally presented advertising. Although psychologists have, to the present, devoted relatively little attention to studying the process of salesmanship, considerable research has been directed toward the problems of selecting and training salesmen. REFERENCE: "Industrial Organization", Laurence Siegel (Ph.D),1962 "Psychology and Industrial Productivity", Michael M. Graneberg. 1 ...read more.

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