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Management and Practices

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MGT501 Management and Practices Assignment I by First name and name 1. INTRODUCTION 3 2. THE EVOLUTION OF MANAGEMENT THEORIES 5 2.1 TODAY� MANAGERIAL CHALLENGE 5 2.2 EARLY PERSPECTIVES OF MANAGEMENT 6 2.3 CLASSICAL MANAGEMENT THEORY 6 2.3.1 Criticism to classical theory 7 2.4 THE HUMAN RELATIONS APPROACH 7 2.4.1 Criticism of the human relations approach 8 3. MANAGERIAL ROLES, FUNCTIONS AND SKILLS 8 3.1 BUSINESS ENVIRONMENT 9 3.2 THE IMPORTANCE OF A MANAGEMENT TEAM 10 3.3 MODERN MANAGEMENT 11 4. CONCLUSION 12 REFERENCES 13 1. Introduction Decision-making is a crucial part of good business. The question is how is a good decision made? One part of the answer is good information, and experience in interpreting information. There are also aids to decision-making, various techniques which help to make information clearer and better analysed, and to add objective precision to decision-making to reduce the amount of subjectivity. Managers can be trained to make better decisions. They also need a supportive environment where they won't be unfairly criticised for making wrong decisions (as we all do sometimes) and will receive proper support from their colleague and superiors. Decision-making increasingly happens at all levels of a business. The Board of Directors may make the grand strategic decisions about investment and direction of future growth, and managers may make the more tactical decisions about how their own department may contribute most effectively to the overall business objectives.1 But quite ordinary employees are increasingly expected to make decisions about the conduct of their own tasks, responses to customers and improvements to business practice. This needs careful recruitment and selection, good training, and enlightened management. ...read more.


They believed that employees brought their social needs with them to the organisation and that effective management required a more-human oriented approach. 2.4.1 Criticism of the human relations approach Management approaches developed from the neoclassical theory were based on a more realistic picture of people at work. The importance of group behaviour could no longer be ignored. Managers began putting greater emphasis on the work group and theneed for better communication between supervisors and workers. There is a difference between allowing workers to participate in making work-related decisions and letting workers think that they are participating in the company through social and recreational activities. Neoclassical theory provided useful insights but was not totally accurate. 3. Managerial roles, functions and skills To meet the many demands of performing their function, managers obtain multiple roles. A role is an organised set of behaviours. Mintzberg has identified ten roles common to the work of managers. The ten roles are divided into three groups; interpersonal, informational and decisional. The informational role links the managerial work together. The interpersonal roles ensure that information is provided. The performance of managerial roles and requirements of these roles can be played at different times by the same manager and to different degrees depending on the function of management.6 Managers create and maintain an internal environment, so that others can work efficiently. The manager�s job consists of planning, organising, directing and controlling the resources of the organisation. These resources are people, jobs, technology, facilities, materials, information and money. Managers act in a dynamic environment and must adapt to changes. The job of every manager involves what is known as the functional management: planning, organising, directing and controlling functions are goal-directed and interdependent. ...read more.


They also encourage managers to respond quickly to changes that occur in the environment, such as new technology and different societal values. However, these concepts are more difficult for new managers to understand. It is very easy to learn sets of universal management principles without regard to he possibility that they may be wrong for some situations. It is much more difficult to understand systems. Modern management uses each concepts described, as well as relevant concepts from classical and neoclassical theory, to develop effective management. Branches of management theory also exist relating to nonprofits and to government: such as public administration, public management, and educational management. Further, management programs related to civil-society organizations have also implemented programs in nonprofit management and social entrepreneurship. As one consequence, workplace democracy has become both more common, and more advocated, in some places distributing all management functions among the workers, each of whom takes on a portion of the work. However, these models predate any current political issue, and may occur more naturally than does a command hierarchy. All management to some degree embraces democratic principles in that in the long term workers must give majority support to management; otherwise they leave to find other work, or go on strike. Management has started to become less based on the conceptualisation of classical military command-and-control, and more support of collaborative activity, utilizing principles such as those of human interaction management to deal with the complexities of human interaction.9 Finally, it is important to realise that there is no single best theory of management. Each of the many theories of management has some advantageous applications and some limitations. Management today is both a reflection of and a reaction to past management theories. The most important theories have been presented in this paper. ...read more.

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