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"Managers should do everything they can to enhance job satisfaction of their employees? Do you agree or disagree? Support your position?

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Introduction

3. "Managers should do everything they can to enhance job satisfaction of their employees? Do you agree or disagree? Support your position? The notion that employee job satisfaction should be a top priority for managers has been one of much debate. Although managers have many roles in organizations, their most important purpose is to manage their organizations (employees) in a way that can maximize profits. Thus, investing time, effort and money in ensuring that employees are satisfied in only worthwhile if it results in higher productivity and profitability for the firm. Early theorist theorized that increased profitability should increase with an increase in job satisfaction while later studies emerged to refute the existence of any significant relationship between the two variables. However, various literature has more recently emerged drawing attention to the appropriate level of analysis that should be undertaken when examining this relationship. Thus, in this paper I will summarize results of studies against and in support of the performance - job satisfaction model and ultimately present my view that under the right job setting that managers would be well advised to invest their resources in improving job satisfaction. There are many different variations of definitions for job satisfaction, but for the purposes of this paper, I will use the following definition: "[Job] satisfaction can be regarded as an evaluation of equitableness of treatments and conditions" (Smith at al, 1969, p. 166 cited in Organ, D.W. 1988). There are two schools of thought on the existence and causes of satisfaction. The first theory states that satisfaction is a fairly stable characteristic in individuals while the second theory states the cause of satisfaction is more situational and indicates that "the climate of the organization, job characteristics, and participation in decision making"(Organ, D.W. 1988) are some of the factors that influence satisfaction in employees. Thus, managers who subscribe to the job satisfaction-performance model can try to enhance workplace performance either through the recruitment of individuals with a predisposition to being satisfied (if they subscribe ...read more.

Middle

Considerations of employees' attitudes and sentiments is important because they determine collaborative effort. Collaborative effort that is directed toward the organization's objectives in necessary for achievement for achievement of organizational goals, and unhappy employees cannot effectively participate in such efforts. (likert 1961) Satisfied employees will be more likely to engage in collaborative effort and accept organizational goals that can increase productivity, whereas dissatisfied employees either fail to work collaboratively or may work collaboratively but divert effort away from the achievement of organizational goals. Measures of organizational effectiveness most likely reflect the combination and interaction of the salient organizational behaviors that promote organizational performance. Lower performance is just one possible response to dissatisfaction. Dissatisfied employees could also file a grievance, try to improve their performance, ask for a transfer, beat their dog. A dissatisfied employee could be prevented from lowering performance by various control mechanisms (goals or standards of measurement, supervisory pressure) yet widespread dissatisfaction could lead to a strike or sabotage that could lower organizational effectiveness. (Locke, 1984) My assumption, based on the work of organizational theorists is that employees who are satisfied, committed, and well adjusted will be more willing to work toward organizational objectives and give their services whole heartedly to the organization, hence promoting organizational effectiveness, than dissatisfied employees, who will be more likely to satisfy minimum expectations of required behavior, perform it at less than their potential, and engage in disruptive behavior that would lower organizational productivity and effectiveness. Teacher satisfaction was correlated with improved math and reading achievement, increased student achievement, student satisfaction, lower teacher turnover, and greater administrative performance. Conclusion: The strongest results were found for employee satisfaction; organizations with more satisfied employees tended to be more effective than organizations with less satisfied employees. Furthermore, these relationships were somewhat stronger than those typically observed at the individual level, Therefore, the conclusion of many researchers that satisfaction and performance are not strongly related can be questioned. It may be true that the relationship is weak at the individual level. ...read more.

Conclusion

It is now widely recognized that some voluntary turnover is helpful, rather than harmful, to the organization in that it includes resignations from employ0ees who perform poorly or are disruptive. (Hollenbeck and Williams, 1986) Employees with strong affective commitment were less likely than those with weak commitment to miss work for reasons that were under their own control. (Second, Hackett, Bycio, and Hausdorf 1994) Results of several recent studies suggest that overall, employees with strong affective commitment to the organization work harder at their jobs and perform them better than those with weak commitment (Commitment) Kim and Mauborgne 1993 found that those with strong affective commitment to the organization reported higher levels of compliance with strategic decisions made at the corporate level than did those with weaker commitment. Numerous studies have included independent assessments of performance. In some studies, for example, affective commitment had been linked to objective indicators such as sales figures (Bashaw and Grant 1994) and the control of operational costs (DeCotiis and Summers, 1987) For affective commitment to influence particular performance outcomes, the employee must have adequate control over the outcomes in questions Ostroff hypothesized and found that school level teacher commitment was correlated with several independent measures of school performance. For example, teacher commitment was correlated positively with average student performance on some academic achievement tests, student attendance, and student satisfaction with their teachers and their education. Commitment was negatively correlated with school dropout rates and a measure of discipline problems within school. Interestingly, Ostroff also noted that correlations between commitment and some performance variable tended to be stronger than those reported in studies that used an individual level of analysis. Various statistical and measurement arguments can be offered to explain this observed difference between levels of analysis. It is also possible that individual-level performance indicators typically used in commitment research, simply do not capture the more unusual measures of commitment on employee behavior, which when added together significantly improve overall organizational functional. ...read more.

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