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People and Organisations.

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People and Organisations Human resource management (HRM) is the 'grown-up' version of personnel. Personnel management a range of separate, discrete activities related to the workforce. HRM making the most of the workforce as part of a co-ordinated effort to achieve corporate goals NB Planning the Workforce HR is a resource supplying function; it looks at the demand and supply of labour. Demand Given corporate goals and their impact on other functions of the firm; * How many workers will the business need? * What skills will they require? * Where do they need to be? Supply Factors will be internal or external: * How many workers does the business currently employ? * How many are likely to leave over the coming year? * What skills do the current workforce possess? * What impact will changing technology/changes to working conditions have on the workforce's productivity? * What is the state of the local labour market? * What of the labour market more globally? HR must then produce workforce plans to show how the firm will deal with any surplus or shortfall in labour. Also to develop the workforce. These plans involve; a) Recruitment (including Selection) b) Training c) Appraisal d) Redeployment e) Promotion f) Dismissal g) Redundancy h) Retirement Recruitment Start with a job description that sets out the facts about/requirements of a post - title of the post and its position in the hierarchy - responsibilities and duties involved - conditions of employment etc. then formulate a job specification (aka a person specification) that sets out the (hoped-for) characteristics of the successful applicant. - educational/professional qualifications - skills - experience Once these criteria have been set then the firm can advertise the post both internally and externally, the advantages of one method being the disadvantages of the other and vice versa. Internal recruitment Advantages - candidates are familiar with the business, its procedures and culture - no need for induction training - provides opportunities for promotion or redeployment - avoids expensive advertising - candidates are known qualities Method; normally very simple with notices put on the office/factory bulletin board or in house magazine. ...read more.


scientific approach to production * he was not anti worker; as he himself said: The principal object of management should be to secure the maximum prosperity for the employer, coupled with the maximum prosperity of each employee. Taylor in practice Monetary reward is to be the primary motivator (although fringe benefits or 'perks', representing payment in kind, can have a role to play). This can take the form of; * piece rates workers are rewarded for their level of output eg Advantages - - - Disadvantages - - - * performance related pay with the rise of salaries and wages as the most common form of money payments, PRP is an attempt to re-introduce the link between effort/output and reward. However PRP has attracted some criticisms; 1. It is unfair. How can an employee in the service sector (nurse, policeman, etc.) have their output measured so that their performance against pre-agreed targets can be rewarded? Too much depends upon the interview/ appraisal system and so puts great power in the hands of line managers. 2. Will the system be properly funded? If superior performance only attracts minimal extra rewards, then perhaps workers will not be motivated. Lack of funding can be addressed through variable pay where instead of PRP operating across the whole organisation, a few star employees can be identified and their rewards boosted spectacularly depending on performance. [Note how Taylor's individualistic approach is once more to the fore.] * profit sharing when the business is successful, its employees share in the success with a (small?) slice of the profits being distributed amongst the workers. This encourages worker loyalty (breaking down the 'them and us' attitude) but again, there is a danger that once the bonus payments are shared out, the amount for each worker could be rather paltry. * share ownership workers are invited to take some of their remuneration in the form of shares in the company, thus tying their future reward into the success of their employer. ...read more.


Workers appreciate the opportunity to express themselves and may some input on their part in the resulting outcome. Democratic leaders (or participative leaders) encourage input from all employees and decisions are a result of either some kind of voting procedure or, more likely, as an outcome of informal discussions; leaders must therefore be extremely skilled as communicators. Laissez Faire leaders can either be seen as lazy and unwilling to take the decisions that are their essential function, or are so trusting in the ability of their subordinates that they have delegated the entire decision making process. The key is to be able to switch between styles when the context so requires. eg McGregor's Theory X and Theory Y McGregor attempted to formalise leadership theory by looking at two contrasting styles. Each looks at management's attitude towards their workforce and thus defines their behaviour towards them. Theory X - similar in many ways to the negative aspects of Taylorism - employees dislike work and will shirk if possible; responsibility is also to be avoided as workers have little if any ambition - workers want the security of a 'quiet life' in their jobs ? management must exert continuous control and supervision over the workforce. There is a total lack of trust. Theory Y - employees enjoy work, seeing it as an opportunity to fulfil their social, self-esteem and self-actualisation needs - under certain circumstances, workers actually seek responsibility ? management should encourage their workers to take on positions of authority by delegating decision-making to them; this will improve their motivation and commitment. However, there is a need for trust. McGregor himself saw Theory Y as the only way forward; Theory X was only put forward to be ridiculed and criticised. However, as with many aspects of HR management (organisational structure, motivation, leadership style), the context will determine the best approach. But the management of transition from X to Y will always create problems as trust is not a commodity that can be forced into a working relationship, or built overnight. 7 25 ...read more.

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