• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Power - The ability to exert influence; that is, the ability to change the attitudes or behavior of individuals or groups.

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Power * The ability to exert influence; that is, the ability to change the attitudes or behavior of individuals or groups. Formal Power a. Reward power b. Coercive power c. Legitimate power d. Information power Informal Power a. Expert power b. Referent power c. Charismatic power Kotter's key characteristics of successfully handled power Kotter maintains that managers who handle power successfully: 1. Are sensitive to the source of their power. 2. Recognize the different costs, risks, and benefits of the five bases of power. 3. Appreciate that each of the five power bases has merit. 4. Possess career goals that allow them to develop and use power. 5. Act maturely and exercise self-control. 6. Understand that power is necessary to get things done. - Powerlessness is a difficult condition to overcome. Kanter's key means to organizational power 1. Extraordinary activity. 2. Visibility. 3. Relevance. 4. Sponsors. - Power is not limited to managers. All members of an organization can have a great deal of power because of their knowledge, their skills, or resources they control. Knowledge, combined with hands-on input into daily activities, is tantamount to power, and those members of an organization who possess key skills are in a position to secure themselves a base of practical power. ...read more.

Middle

6. Coalition formation - A way of gaining both power and influence. A coalition is a specific arrangement of parties working together to combine their power, thus exerting influence on another individual or group. 7. Joking and kidding - Good-matured ribbing is especially effective when a straightforward statement might be interpreted as harsh criticism. Delegation * The act of assigning formal authority (legitimate power) and responsibility for completion of specific activities to a subordinate. * The assignment of responsibilities by a manager to a subordinate. * The granting of permission (authority) to make commitments, use resources, and take necessary actions. * The creation of an obligation (responsibility) on the part of the subordinate to the manager to perform the duties satisfactorily. The advantages of delegation 1. The more tasks managers are able to delegate, the more opportunities they have to seek and accept increased responsibilities from higher-level managers. 2. Delegation causes employees to accept accountability and exercise judgement, and further improves their self-confidence and willingness to take initiative. 3. Delegation frequently leads to better decisions. 4. Effective delegation also speeds up decision making. 5. Facilitates division of work and thereby specialization. 6. Permit decisions to be made closer to the scene of action. ...read more.

Conclusion

3. The drawback is potential paralysis of decision-making and poor morale. 1. Control by many because men at the top believe that participation will increase efficiency and effectiveness. 2. As a result of the above attitude, decisions are made throughout the organization. 3. The drawback may be control by many. Advantages vs. disadvantages Advantages of decentralization: 1. Unburdening of top managers. 2. Decision making is frequently better because decisions are made closer to the scene of action 3. Better training, morale, and initiative at lower level 4. More flexibility and faster decision making in rapidly changing environments. Disadvantages of decentralization: 1. Total decentralization with no coordination and leadership from the top would clearly be undesirable. The very purpose of organization - efficient integration of sub-units for the pursuit of organizational goals through the strategic plan - would be defeated without some centralized control. Advantages of centralization: 1. Specialized skills, talents, and technology are sometimes neither affordable nor practical in decentralization. 2. Decentralization means an increase in overhead and staff. Coordination of products, money, and control also add to the cost of decentralization. Disadvantages of centralization: 1. Potential paralysis of decision-making and poor morale. Factors influencing decentralization 1. The external business environment. 2. The characteristics of the organization. 3. The rate of growth of the organization. 4. The cost and risk associated with the decision. 5. An individual manager's preference and confidence in employees. 6. The organizational culture. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE People in Business section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related GCSE People in Business essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    Sainsbury's organizational structure.

    5 star(s)

    The managers make decisions in order for Sainsbury to perform well and be profitable. The managers also motivate the staffs at Sainsbury to enjoy doing their work and to do their work. This benefits customers by the way that the supermarket stays in a pleasant condition (tidy, clean etc)

  2. John Smithers at Sigtek - Organizational Behavior

    Increase participation. Once the need (or at least the argument) for change had been established with senior and mid-level managers, Smithers should have involved them in the change process in order to get them to have a stake in the change process and create the opportunity to solve their own problems.

  1. This Psychometric test is a way of assessing an individual's ability or personality in ...

    Failing a psychometric test however, may also be due to the fact that some individual's do not have self awareness, so cannot answer the questions truthfully. Many rely on other people's judgement. Thereby I conclude by saying that it is in the best interest of a candidate to answer the

  2. As a manager discuss what you would expect to be the results of a ...

    The fact is that motivation is not a small topic, often the results of individuals and teams relate to their motivation. Any individual can produce different results, depending on the degree of motivation he/she has when performing a task, project or activity.

  1. Report is based on a thorough understanding of how the college is organized and ...

    Paying-off creditors is also another important thing the Finance department needs to be aware of. The faster the creditors are paid, the better the relationship gets between the supplier and the college. The Finance department gets its money from the government through the Learning Skills Council and many other sources.

  2. What are the staff positions in a typical police department? Is there a difference ...

    In an Authoritarian organization, managers do as they are told, transmit orders to workers who are expected to carry out the task without question. Decisions are made at the top like military type organization. Theory X assumes people hate work, have to be forced to do it, and have to be forced to achieve company's objectives-- motivation is feared.

  1. Our interview sessions to learn the functions of the department, the roles of the ...

    Patton on Teams. Today, teams are replacing individuals as the basic building blocks of organizations. The hospitality industry requires the coordinated efforts of a large number of staff members to come together and work cooperatively as a team.20 At Hilton Hotels, employees are called "Team Members."

  2. Organisational change

    Coaching others had always been a strong suit of mine, especially when it comes to training. I enjoyed training people (I still do) as it provides me a sense of satisfaction and achievement knowing that I have contributed in helping others with their work.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work