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Problems in Statistics and Research Methods

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Introduction

A GEM OF A STUDY Yoshiko M. Moss June 29, 2004 QNT 530 Problems in Statistics and Research Methods Michael Thomas Introduction GEM was established at the end of 1997 as a joint initiative by scholars in entrepreneurship from Babson College (U.S.) and the London Business School (UK). The project was designed to provide a framework for conducting long-range studies, multinational in scope, which would involve scholars in entrepreneurship from leading research institutions located in advanced countries. During the first year of the project, the participants had planned to investigate and ascertain the project's feasibility among the G-7 nations (Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, the UK, and the U.S.) and Denmark, Finland, and Israel. The research addresses three core questions: 1. Does the level of entrepreneurial activity vary between countries, and if so, to what extent? 2. What makes a country entrepreneurial? 3. Does the level of entrepreneurial activity affect a country's rate of national economic growth? In the context of the research, entrepreneurship is defined as "Any attempt at new business or new venture creation, such as self-employment, a new business organization, or expansion of an existing business, by an individual, a team of individual, or an established business." ...read more.

Middle

Furthermore, in order for a large number of national teams to work together, it is necessary for the project to make a number of assumptions as to the nature of entrepreneurship and to define certain boundaries. The results of this research provided a set of general conclusions regarding entrepreneurship demonstrated the unique national context of each country represented in the group. A multiple regression analysis was conducted with entrepreneurial attitudes (Favorable, Neutral, and Unfavorable) as the dependent variables. The independent factors were the treatment or control grouping, Culture, Equity, Debt, R&D, Education, Subcontractor and Legal Banking. Another independent factor was the participating countries. The overall aim of the study is to provide those concerned with promoting entrepreneurship with an opportunity to develop a clear understanding of how to enhance entrepreneurial activity. One of the intervening, extraneous, and moderating variables that the study attempted to control with its 10-nation design is to make sure that all questions could be meaningfully translated into their native language of each participating nation and to more accurately target areas of interest and concern. ...read more.

Conclusion

A causal study attempts to identify a cause-effect relationship between two or more groups. Causal-comparative studies involve comparison in contrast to correlation research which looks at relationship. Therefore, a casual study can be done without controlling and manipulating any variables. However, in conducting a casual study, it must be reviewed carefully to see how these other factors were controlled. To be testable, the hypothesis needs to be stated precisely and the variables need to be defined clearly. A casual study can also be done when much of the primary data collected is descriptive opinion and ordinal or interval data. Those opinion and data go beyond plain gathering of data. They can be used to analyze and interpret of the meaning or significance of what is described. The conclusions then can be based upon comparisons, contrasts, or causal relationships of various kinds. Conclusion Systematic federal efforts to provide accurate, timely measures of new and growth firms and an ongoing assessment of the national entrepreneurial process would do much to enhance understand of this important activity and may prevent major policy errors or oversights. (Zacharakis & Bygrave. 1999) Entrepreneurship is critical to the nation's economic well-being. Therefore, GEM research method must be accurately understood and provides a basis to ensure its continued force. ...read more.

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