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Scientific Management.

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Introduction

Scientific Management Representatives of capital supporter scientific management. It proposes to increase industrial output by managing labour scientifically. But organized labour does not want to be scientifically managed. It is not keen about being managed at all. It exists, in fact, to manage itself. Labour controversies, as carried on by the American Federation of Labour, are demands for a "voice" in the settlement of conditions of work. But this demand is not recognized by capital as a principle. It is only recognized as a necessity when labour, through superior strength, secures its demands in this trade and that. The concession to labour of a voice in determining conditions of work means by implication to capital that management as a whole is still in its own hands; it also means that its actual title to superior, or ownership rights, is not in question. The Industrial Workers of the World leaves no doubt in the mind of capital that it claims only a voice in the management of industry. It makes its fight on the grounds of labour's sole ownership, as well as right, to sole management in all that labour produces. Every strike, every difference between organized labour and capital, is an attempt of the former to wrest management, or some degree of management, from the latter. Whether it is an A. F. of L. or an I. ...read more.

Middle

She said: "Well, there is a certain kind of a filler that I used in another factory. If you will use that kind of filler I can do my work so much more quickly. Another thing, the paper you are using on that tip is too coarse. If you will use a finer paper I won't have to use so much filler." The story concluded: "So that girl and this manufacturer worked out a condition that made it easier for her to perform more work."(4) Scientific management is a good scavenger. It is out for every scrap of trade knowledge. Following the machine, it proposes to clean up the last vestige of craftsmanship and to put the shipshape touches to modern industry. There are to be no chance bits of capital lying around loose in the hands of this man and that when the efficiency engineers have finished their job. The second and third of the Four Principles show how this is done. Mr. Taylor says: "The workmen are 'studied' just as machines have been studied." And, finally, it is necessary "to bring the scientifically selected workman and the science together" by "inspiring" the workman. The workman is to be scientifically selected by a teacher instead of by a foreman; he is to be "studied" by this teacher, as well as taught, and the "unit of human effort" is to be squeezed out of him by observing the law of rest and fatigue. ...read more.

Conclusion

It is organized labour alone that remembers the ghastly price paid for increased consumption; the generations of men, women, and children who have been maimed and murdered in the process. Greed and desire, not the well being of labour, are still the motive forces back of increased wealth production. If we are about to enter upon an era of a "New Capitalism" which recognizes that it will pay to increase the number of cotton shirts without exacting so heavy a toll as has been exacted in the past, organized labour still demands that it shall determine, or have a voice in determining, what that toll shall be and what shall be the reward. Scientific management, the promoters say, recognizes no difference in determining standards of efficiency between management, capital goods and labour. Well and good; labour does. Organized labour's observations of a worker do not end with the day's work. They extend over the wear and tear of a lifetime. They take into consideration a worker's ability to react after work, mentally as well as physically. They take into consideration the worker's ability to realize his maximum in his non-labouring hours. And they would also consider his ability to realize his maximum in his labouring hours if labour had an opportunity to fix a maximum consistent with the life interests of labour as a whole. The difference between scientific management and organized labour is that the aim of the latter is to make men, the aim of the former is to make goods. ...read more.

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