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Technology and Innovation.

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Introduction

TECHNOLOGY AND INNOVATION According to Sakiki Fukada-Parr the prominent author of a UNDP report on technology and development suggests, electronic communications help make societies less hierarchical. He quotes "no one can see the cut of your suit, and no secretary blocks your path to the minister's office." "Junior employee's who would never have dared knock on a chief executive's door might send him an idea electronically". (The Economist (US), Nov 10, 2001) Cetron & Davies, [2001]) believes businesses have come to rely on technology for increased production efficiency and more appropriate communication operations. Competition is mounting in the business world and organisations must take advantage of the latest technology in order to improve their business functions. Organisations must change the way they act, think and operate internally as their work environment becomes more technologically advanced. All businesses across the world have sufficient communications tools that make global management much easier. Devices such as e-mail, fax machines and satellite communication are all tools that enable managers to communicate at an extremely high pace. (Heiko [1989]) suggests that technology implementation will be heavily influenced by cultural factors, such as technological advances between foreign operations. He observed that Just-In-Time approach of inventory management has been favourably received in Japan, leading to considerable savings. However, this is not the case in other countries and believes this is down to unique cultural conditions in Japan such as concern for space, and a deep group oriented devotion to duty, all of which match the requirements of (JIT ) ...read more.

Middle

(Boddewyn, [1991]; Jain, [1989]). According to (Solberg, [2000]) there are two important organisational factors that relate to the degree of standardisation in international markets. Firstly, market knowledge at the level of headquarters (HQ) of local market conditions and secondly HQ's control of subsidiaries i.e. (Influence on their marketing decisions). In addition (Martenson, [1987]; Rau & Preble, [1987]; Tai & Wong, [1998] suggested that MNC's needed to have a certain degree of control over their subsidiaries in order to implement decisions. (Hite & Frazer, [1998]) state that, MNC's with a well-known and global image i.e. (Coca cola) tend to apply more control over their subsidiaries in order to maintain the image of the corporation or product (Hill & James, [1990]) especially if perceptions of consumers are similar across countries. (Britt, [1974], Jain, [1989]). However, in the case of Matsushita in the electronic industry this was not the case as each subsidiary had a separate identity, which resulted in major success. This then leads on to market development. (Jain, [1989]; Duncan & Ramaprasad, [1995]) suggest if similar levels of market development are achieved in both home and host countries marketing standardisation would favour MNC's. However, this would depend on the competitive positions in home and host countries of the MNC. Higher degrees of marketing standardisation may be adapted (Jain, [1989]; Henzler & Rall, [1986]) if similarities prevailed in the competitive context that would allow HQ's to make easier decisions regarding competition and to enhance control over the subsidiary and to adopt more beneficial standardisation strategies. ...read more.

Conclusion

Organisation are fast realising the importance of diversity. Cultural diversity is the idea that cultural identities should not be ignored but in contrast be maintained and respected. The literature which is going to be presented in this paper will examine four main issues. In my opinion these issues are of major importance for global firms. The first issue is the strategies which global firms adapt follw . Secondly, the concept of Technology and Innovation. This section will in detail provide literature from researchers who believe global firms benefit from cultural diversity in this field. It will examine how technology is changing the business world. Thirdly, the marketing issue. This section will provide relevant literature on how global firms can benefit in relation to standardisation of marketing and how advertising campaigns are perceived by different countries. Lastly, the concept of Staffing and Training. This in my view is one of the most important issues. Global organisations can have all the capital in the world but with out the correct leadership and staff, failure is certain. This topic will in detail will put forward the notion of cross-cultural training and will examine whether or not this is a good idea for global organisations. All the topics mentioned above will have cases for and against by the relevant researchers in each field. I feel this is necessary in order to establish a good understanding of the literature review I am conducting. According to (Tallman & Jiatao [1996]) diversity has gone from being a moral/legal issue are both into a business necessity. ...read more.

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