• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Technology and Innovation.

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

TECHNOLOGY AND INNOVATION According to Sakiki Fukada-Parr the prominent author of a UNDP report on technology and development suggests, electronic communications help make societies less hierarchical. He quotes "no one can see the cut of your suit, and no secretary blocks your path to the minister's office." "Junior employee's who would never have dared knock on a chief executive's door might send him an idea electronically". (The Economist (US), Nov 10, 2001) Cetron & Davies, [2001]) believes businesses have come to rely on technology for increased production efficiency and more appropriate communication operations. Competition is mounting in the business world and organisations must take advantage of the latest technology in order to improve their business functions. Organisations must change the way they act, think and operate internally as their work environment becomes more technologically advanced. All businesses across the world have sufficient communications tools that make global management much easier. Devices such as e-mail, fax machines and satellite communication are all tools that enable managers to communicate at an extremely high pace. (Heiko [1989]) suggests that technology implementation will be heavily influenced by cultural factors, such as technological advances between foreign operations. He observed that Just-In-Time approach of inventory management has been favourably received in Japan, leading to considerable savings. However, this is not the case in other countries and believes this is down to unique cultural conditions in Japan such as concern for space, and a deep group oriented devotion to duty, all of which match the requirements of (JIT ) ...read more.

Middle

(Boddewyn, [1991]; Jain, [1989]). According to (Solberg, [2000]) there are two important organisational factors that relate to the degree of standardisation in international markets. Firstly, market knowledge at the level of headquarters (HQ) of local market conditions and secondly HQ's control of subsidiaries i.e. (Influence on their marketing decisions). In addition (Martenson, [1987]; Rau & Preble, [1987]; Tai & Wong, [1998] suggested that MNC's needed to have a certain degree of control over their subsidiaries in order to implement decisions. (Hite & Frazer, [1998]) state that, MNC's with a well-known and global image i.e. (Coca cola) tend to apply more control over their subsidiaries in order to maintain the image of the corporation or product (Hill & James, [1990]) especially if perceptions of consumers are similar across countries. (Britt, [1974], Jain, [1989]). However, in the case of Matsushita in the electronic industry this was not the case as each subsidiary had a separate identity, which resulted in major success. This then leads on to market development. (Jain, [1989]; Duncan & Ramaprasad, [1995]) suggest if similar levels of market development are achieved in both home and host countries marketing standardisation would favour MNC's. However, this would depend on the competitive positions in home and host countries of the MNC. Higher degrees of marketing standardisation may be adapted (Jain, [1989]; Henzler & Rall, [1986]) if similarities prevailed in the competitive context that would allow HQ's to make easier decisions regarding competition and to enhance control over the subsidiary and to adopt more beneficial standardisation strategies. ...read more.

Conclusion

Organisation are fast realising the importance of diversity. Cultural diversity is the idea that cultural identities should not be ignored but in contrast be maintained and respected. The literature which is going to be presented in this paper will examine four main issues. In my opinion these issues are of major importance for global firms. The first issue is the strategies which global firms adapt follw . Secondly, the concept of Technology and Innovation. This section will in detail provide literature from researchers who believe global firms benefit from cultural diversity in this field. It will examine how technology is changing the business world. Thirdly, the marketing issue. This section will provide relevant literature on how global firms can benefit in relation to standardisation of marketing and how advertising campaigns are perceived by different countries. Lastly, the concept of Staffing and Training. This in my view is one of the most important issues. Global organisations can have all the capital in the world but with out the correct leadership and staff, failure is certain. This topic will in detail will put forward the notion of cross-cultural training and will examine whether or not this is a good idea for global organisations. All the topics mentioned above will have cases for and against by the relevant researchers in each field. I feel this is necessary in order to establish a good understanding of the literature review I am conducting. According to (Tallman & Jiatao [1996]) diversity has gone from being a moral/legal issue are both into a business necessity. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE People in Business section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related GCSE People in Business essays

  1. INDIA vs. UK - CULTURAL DIFFERENCES

    This means the organization might have to consider how they carry out their scheduling and change it accordingly to make sure that when they make schedules they give the minimum break between shifts. For this organization might want to consider using shift working pattern as well as flexible staffing.

  2. Organisational structure Rolls Royce is a technology and global leader. They employ 35,200 people ...

    The workers are trained for different kinds of required skills to accomplish these tasks. Direct supervision is used to monitor the employees' performance. The employees obey the rules and regulations and operational procedures in order to achieve the objectives.

  1. Building Effective Teams.

    The last step of the process, the conclusion, wraps up what the group has learned as a whole. The facilitator should ask questions to determine if the group completed their individual goals, the group goals and/or resolve all issues that might have arises during the exercise.

  2. As a short-term business Consultant, I have been hired by Alton Towers PLC to ...

    Mobile phones are external as people can contact the business using the mobile phones from outside of the business. A disadvantage of this is that the calls can be quite expensive. * Meetings Meetings involve using face-to-face communication. The meetings involve internal communication.

  1. A Report on How Richer Sounds Functions

    * A 'try before you buy' - applies to speaker cables where customers can test before they buy them. * Free deliveries scheme - for disabled customers. * Mystery shopper scheme - check quality of service both in stores and over the telephone. They also visit competitors to compare services.

  2. Operational Issues in the BPO industry

    ask some thing about a new launch in the customer care support. The abandonment rate is usually determined based on the speed of the call. For e.g.: Some companies have a speed of answer of 2 minutes. This means that the calls have to be taken up within 2 minutes.

  1. Motivation Techniques

    Retirement security benefits are aimed at individuals who do not preserve an adequate amount of money for when they retire. This is a resourceful benefit for employees considering a long-term commitment with an organization. Under the Age Discrimination in Employment Act (ADEA), the majority of employees can not be forced to retire.

  2. "We live in the Empire of the Gaze" Jay (1985). Why do you think ...

    For decades, many of the leading players in the security and surveillance industry have successfully provided technical systems solutions that have been based mainly on CCTV technologies - technologies that would typically comprise of a collection of static monitors, analogue video recorders and video-cassette recorders, connected by costly and complex coaxial cables.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work