• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month
  1. 1
  2. 2
  3. 3
  4. 4
  5. 5
  6. 6
  7. 7
  8. 8
  9. 9
  10. 10
  11. 11
  12. 12
  13. 13
  14. 14
  15. 15

The Nature and Importance of Operations & Quality.

Extracts from this document...


--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 1. The Nature and Importance of Operations & Quality --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 1.1 Introduction This module will stimulate participants' awareness of the management of operations and their quality assurance within a wider business context. The relationships between design, control, strategic, human and other considerations will be stressed, the emphasis being that participants are aware of the "total" approach necessary in the design and management of "appropriate" operations systems. Particular importance will be attributed to the management of quality. The module will examine not only the traditional approaches to quality control, but also the contemporary philosophy of total quality management and the various programmes and techniques of quality improvement and assurance including quality circles and kaizen, quality accreditation, certification and awards, and business process reengineering. The practice of operations and quality management is accepted as a necessary function within any organization. When one talks of a theory or discipline of operations management, however, it has only been relatively recently that this has become accepted as a suitable subject for academic study. The reason is perhaps explained by the range of competencies normally required by an effective operations manager: human resource skills, technical knowledge, problem solving abilities, logic, quantitative methods and strategic insight are all areas in which the manager should be conversant. As a result the emergence of one line of theory within the discipline has not occurred and operations management has developed using the theories from a range of other disciplines, as well as being routed in its own tradition of factory management. This section attempts to convey an understanding of the subject. It does this by setting operations management within its historical context. In so doing, the influences upon the development of the subject will be highlighted through time. Finally, the role of the operations manager will be explored and the scope of operations management principles and techniques examined. The section contains a detailed history of operations management, supplemented by a discussion of current practice, theory and scope from the recommended course book. ...read more.


Knowledge of psychological and sociological features started to influence job design, strategies for worker motivation and management control policies. The organizational forms of production and service companies have been influenced by a number of "behaviouralist" theories and practical approaches: The Hawthorne Studies and "Behavioural Science School" A series of experiments conducted by researchers from the Harvard Business School at Western Electric Company which illustrated the importance of human aspects in determining output and productivity (Roethlisberger and Dickson, 1939). The Motivation Theorists A number of theories have been forwarded on the motivation of people at work, including Maslow's "Hierarchy of Needs" (Maslow, 1943), McGregor's "Theory X and Theory Y" (McGregor, 1960), Likert's Theory (Likert, 1961), and Herzberg's "Satisfiers and Dissatisfiers" (Herzberg, 1966). Wilfred Brown, Glacier Metal Company of London and "Daywork" Drew into question the effectiveness of direct piecework incentives and presented hourly pay in the form of daywork as a less problematic alternative means of remuneration (Brown, 1962). Socio-Technical Systems and "Group Working" On the evidence of development of work design in the British Coal Mining industry, the teamwork approach to flowline assembly at Philips, Eindhoven, and the experiences of Volvo in Sweden with autonomous group working, theorists (most predominantly from the Tavistock Institute) stressed the need for the parallel development of social and technical systems for the success of manufacturing operations (see, for example, Gyllenhammar, 1977). Flexible Labour Recently the need for flexible labour to cope with changes in the market and environment has been identified. Atkinson's model of the "Flexible Firm" was developed as an explanation of flexible organization (Atkinson, 1984). "Post-Fordism" has developed whose supporters argue that the era of mass production is now over with more flexible and less rigid work structures now developing (Murray, 1989). The argument for "Flexible Specialisation" has been forwarded which sees a revival of craft-forms of production and the need for multi-skilling in the workforce (Piore and Sabel, 1984). ...read more.


By considering the organizational scope of operations management: "Operations Management" should not be confused with the term "operational management". The management of operations permeates all levels of organizational decision making and is not merely confined to less important, low level and short term decisions. The operations manager should, in turn, enter more widespread strategic debates in addition to maintaining contact with day-to-day operations. Thus the scope for operations management in decision making covers operational management right through to strategic management. For the purposes of this module a distinction has been drawn between "design" and "operations planning and control". Design, covered in Chapters 3 and 4 of this package, involves the organization and arrangement of physical facilities and labour resources to enable the conversion of inputs (materials, orders, labour, etc.) into outputs (goods and services). Chapters 5 and 6 then explore the design and management of service operations and issues pertaining to project management respectively. Planning and control, contained within Chapters 7 to 9, concerns the organizing and monitoring of systems once in operation, together with the feedback of variances from plan for process adjustment where necessary. The principles of quality management and process improvement, which encompasses strategy, design and operational management, is covered extensively in Chapters 10 and 11. 1.5 Summary Operations Management is, essentially, a multidisciplinary subject which draws upon a wide range of perspectives and schools of management thought, as described above. The remainder of this package will explore the subject in depth. Now read Slack et al, Chapter 1. 1"Adam Smith," Microsoft(r) Encarta(r) 96 Encyclopedia. (c) 1993-1995 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved. 2"Eli Whitney," Microsoft(r) Encarta(r) 96 Encyclopedia. (c) 1993-1995 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved. 3"Early Industrial Plant," Microsoft(r) Encarta(r) 96 Encyclopedia. (c) 1993-1995 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved. 4"Division of Labour in Industry," Microsoft(r) Encarta(r) 96 Encyclopedia. (c) 1993-1995 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved. ?? 1. The Nature and Importance of Operations & Quality ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 1. The Nature and Importance of Operations & Quality ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Page 4 MBA Operations Management ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- MBA Operations Management Page 3 ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- MBA Operations Management Page 1 ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE People in Business section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related GCSE People in Business essays

  1. BMW Operations Management

    The report will then finish with a conclusion and possible recommendations for the chosen organisation in regards to their operational management style and how it could be improved. 3. Findings The operations management task is defined as the day-to-day production of goods that continually requires decisions to be made and the implementation of changes.

  2. Produce a case study comparing two business organisations, investigating the extent to which each ...

    Tesco are very successful is maintaining customer loyalty. Attract new customers Word of mouth is an important factor when attracting new customers, therefore it is important all customers have a pleasant experience in the store, dissatisfied customers tell at least 15 people about the bad service they receive.

  1. The Nature and Purpose of Project Management.

    This indicates that a later stage may reveal the need for some extra work at an earlier stage, but this should be the exception rather than a rule, after all the flow of a waterfall should be downwards with the possibility of just a little water splashing back.

  2. The report will supply a detailed analysis of Royal Mail and how it came ...

    The first area that came under scrutiny was communication. This could not be clearer demonstrated than by the misinterpretation of data. The Post Office National Council (POUNC) lodged a complaint stating that only 70%4 of the first class post was reaching its destination in under twenty four hours.

  1. What is the purpose of management theory? Explain how knowledge to understanding of management ...

    want to build co-operative and intimate working relationships with those that they work for and with, as well as the people that work for them. Also, Theory Z workers have a high need to be supported by the company, and highly value a working environment in which such things as

  2. Teams and Teamwork for the 21st Century.

    Employees in self-managed teams tend to act as their supervisor, such as planning, scheduling, monitoring and staffing. An effective self-managed teams can increase productivity, have good attitude, while training cost for self-managed teams can be very expensive. Team building For greater cooperation, better communication, and less dysfunctional conflict, team building include interpersonal trust exercises, conflict-handing role-play sessions and interactive games.


    judge whether or not is worth applying for Sainsbury's draw up the person specification before the advert is placed. 4) Advertising-: The nature of the advert will depend on the following: o Who the target audience is o Where the advert will be placed Sainsbury's advertisements contain at least the

  2. Managing Human Resources in Marks & Spencer.

    000, 081 From this chart you can see that the number of pupils in school has increased dramatically in the last ten years. This means there should be more young people with qualifications. The number of students in full-time education (all ages)

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work