• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month
Page
  1. 1
    1
  2. 2
    2
  3. 3
    3
  4. 4
    4
  5. 5
    5
  6. 6
    6
  7. 7
    7
  8. 8
    8
  9. 9
    9
  10. 10
    10
  11. 11
    11

This essay explores and discusses the employment relationship while considering the value of a systems approach to industrial relations and the fact that individuals view issues from a particular frame of reference.

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

This essay explores and discusses the employment relationship while considering the value of a systems approach to industrial relations and the fact that individuals view issues from a particular frame of reference. The employment relationship is developed on an inter-related basis involving economic, social and legal dimensions of wider society (Fells, 1989). Organisations are subject to the economic conditions in which they operate. Employers rely on the availability of suitable labour to perform the work of the organisation and although viewed as a commodity by the employer, significant investment in the development of the employee can be lost or unused should the employee decide to leave or remain unmotivated. The unavailability of suitable labour can lead to segmentation of the labour market and a division of labour at the workplace. The division of labour is the breaking down of work into its smallest components in order to achieve effective specialisation, minimal worker discretion and the most efficient output (Sutcliffe and Callus, 1994). This division of labour can have far reaching implications for the management and the organisation, including the control and motivation of the workforce. The legal dimension is concerned with the law of contract between an employer and employee which enables the parties to enter into and enforce agreements (Fells, 1989). By its very nature the employment contract implies a "subordination" relationship where the employer commands and the employee obeys. The introduction of the Workplace Relations Act 1996 also implies legal boundaries in which the employment relationship must operate (for example the rules relating to unfair dismissal and enterprise bargaining). ...read more.

Middle

By assimilating a persons behaviour to one of the three frames of references, it determines how we would react and shapes the method for altering such behaviour. As a tool for understanding a parties behaviour when conflict occurs we need to undertake a "social action perspective", that is to suspend our own judgment when analysing the cause of conflict and accept the persons frame of reference. Individually, our frames of references are molded and influenced by a multiplicity of variables including, values and behaviour, education, political views, work experiences and religious beliefs to name a few. Our position in the class structure and status hierarchy almost certainly has a significant influence as well (Keenoy and Kelly, 1995). It is important to understand these concepts as employers and employees bring to the employment relationship different strategies to gain as much as they can from the relationship. This in turn makes the relationship inherently competitive. Fells (1989) observes that this points to the duality of the employment relationship. "Both the employer and employee put their resources, motives, expectations and own interests into the relationship...these being influenced by the social and economic structure of society" (Fells 1989, P 476). In essence therefore, conflict can arise because of the parties differing social and economic interests and strategies. Keenoy and Kelly (1996) take this further by describing the three great struggles which results from the distribution of authority (inherent in an organisational hierarchy) ...read more.

Conclusion

Up to this point the employment relationship has been discussed in terms of its dual nature. However, it is clear that a more holistic approach is required. A systems approach provides a useful look at the employment relationship because it expands on the dual focus to include a third group of actors and the environment within which the relationship operates. John Dunlop proposed an industrial relations system comprised of actors operating within an environment influenced by technology, economics and power distribution. The system is bound together by both ideology and rules to govern behaviour. Three main groups of actors have been defined as managers, workers and their representatives and other bodies concerned with the relationship between workers and employers. The major output of the system is a set of rules and regulations that apply both in the individual workplace and in the wider work community. (Deery and Plowman, 1991). Dunlop's industrial relations system has been criticised from a number of quarters (Margerison, 1969; Bain and Clegg, 1974; Hyman) for paying insufficient attention to conflict - focusing more on conflict resolution than the root of the conflict, and for suggesting that the industrial relations system is naturally stable. Despite these negative views the system perspective of industrial relations remains valid if only as an analytical tool (Deery and Plowman, 1991). The employment relationship is a unique but fundamental feature of modern society. It commences when an employer engages an employee to perform work in exchange for money. Although this concept of the relationship appears simplistic in nature, it is subject to many stresses and strains brought about by political, social and economic interference. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE People in Business section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related GCSE People in Business essays

  1. Management & Enterprise - Introduction to McDonalds

    It is therefore the role of human resources management to understand what motivates. Innovation This practical refinement and development of an original invention into a usable technique or product, is called innovation. It can be lengthy and expensive process but is nonetheless an important means of improving an organisation's market

  2. The relationship between management theory and practice.

    Taylor decided that the problem of productivity was a matter of ignorance on the part of both managers and workers. Unrealistic piece-rates of pay and production targets were set because managers had not analyzed the work properly, and workers did not know how to carry out their jobs to maximize their efficiency.

  1. Managing Human Resources in Marks & Spencer.

    The purpose is, underpinned by a belief that benefits arise from such "quality analysis" and that managers should receive direct data from upward and laterals sources on their performance. This "open" feedback (opinions of others), it is argued will highlight how he/she is perceived in terms of performance in the role.

  2. GlaxoSmithKline's business is to discover effective medicines and healthcare products for people throughout the ...

    Programmes are: The Elimination of Lymphatic Filariasis (120 million people affected; 1 billion people at risk) Positive Action on HIV/AIDS The Fight Against Malaria The Regional Initiatives are GlaxoSmithKline's community investment to help and challenge communities to affect their own social environments.

  1. Organisations and Behaviour

    says "Taylor's greatest impact may still be ahead .... The need to study Taylor anew and apply him may be the greatest in the developed countries" suggesting that we may still need to use this theory in present day organisations. Moving on into the 1920's brought Webber and Fayol with their classical administration/bureaucracy approach to management.

  2. Stress in the Work-Place

    With this in mind, then the notion of what counselling is about becomes known and accepted. In conclusion, it can be agreed that the process of counselling is both a powerful weapon in fighting stress in the workplace and also a productive experience.

  1. Operational Issues in the BPO industry

    The evolution growth of the BPO industry in India has been facilitated by the global economic meltdown. India is in the fourth phase of growth in the BPO sector. First phase of Evolution: In the first phase of evolution of the BPO industry in India lots of MNC's started their own captive units in the country.

  2. Termination of Employment.

    This could lead to greater morale from current employees as they will see evidence of the organisations concern for employee welfare. Notice of Termination of Employment Employers may have their own policies on notice, but the statutory rights of employees as stated in the Employment Rights Act are: - *

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work