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What is Change Management

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What is Change Management? Organizational change can be described as the process of moving away from a current condition to realize some future state. Change management involves managing the process of achieving this future state. 1 (Nickols, 2004) Change can be viewed from two vantage points, that of the people making the changes and that of the people experiencing the changes. 2 In the top-down, or strategic viewpoint associated with management, the focus is on technical issues such as the investment required, the processes for implementing the change, how soon the change can be realized, and the outcome. In the bottom-up viewpoint of the employee, the focus is on what the change means to the individual, how they can cope with the change, and also how management can assist them through the transition. In this context, effective change management should be able to help individuals evolve from negative feelings such as fear and anxiety towards positive feelings about the changes being made. 3 Effective change management deals with diagnosing problems and determining an alternative that involves changing the organizational structure or processes. It also identifies and deals with the individual responses to change that can hinder the success of the project. To understand change management better, we need to understand the various models and strategies that managers may follow. Some of the models include the Leadership model, Improvisational Model, Theory E versus Theory O, and the ADKAR model. ...read more.


is intentionally introduced because of an event Theory E and Theory O Model In this model, two different theories of what drives change are given. Under Theory E, the purpose of the change is economic, or the creation of value for the organization. The leadership is top-down, emphasis is on the organizational structure, processes and procedures, and the planning is programmed. Under Theory O, the purpose is to develop the human resources of the company and build long-term performance based on a high level of commitment. The leadership is more participative, the focus is on developing a corporate culture, and planning is emergent. 6 (Beer and Nohria, 2001) The ADKAR Model The emphasis of this model is that change occurs along two dimensions, the business need of the organization and the personal experiences of the employees undergoing the change. The model finds that management generally deals effectively with the business needs such as developing the scope and objectives for the change, designing the organizational structure and processes of change, implementing the new systems and processes, and analyzing the results of the implementation. But in order to be successful, management must also be able to address the apprehensions that employees have to change. They need to communicate the business need that the change addresses, elicit a desire in the employees to support the changes either through positive or negative incentives, determine if the employees have the knowledge and skills to support the changes, and finally determine what they need to do in order to make the changes stick. ...read more.


People will do as they are told. The change management is based on the authority of the management and their power to impose punishment for non-compliance. The punishment may be explicit or implicit. This should be the approach of last resort. Environmental - Adaptive - This involves a more evolutionary approach to change. The process is a gradual one that slowly transitions people from the old way of doing things to the new. Summary There is quite a bit of information out there on change management, and quite a few consultants willing to help an organization plan and carry out change. The process of change is not really different from the general decision-making process. You need to diagnose the problem, set goals and objectives, analyze and select the best alternative, create and execute the action plan, and implement and review the change. This is the easy part, and most management is very capable of performing these functions. The problem area is in dealing with the human factors in change, and overcoming their natural resistance. In dealing with this aspect, trying to follow a specific model or strategy is not going to be effective with everyone in the organization. There will always be open supporters and opponents to the change, but there will also be people who are uncertain or are just lukewarm to the idea of change. Just as in the leadership models, it is important for a manager to be able to adapt their strategy for managing change to the changing situation and to the individual. ...read more.

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