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Animal diversity

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Student Name: Chan Yu Yan Maggie 25th September, 2006 Student ID: 50920875 BCH 2001 Organisms and Environment: Plant Diversity No.2 Bryophytes and Seedless Vascular Plants Introduction Evolving from green algae, plants are now divided into three main group which are bryophytes, seedless vascular plants and seed plants. Bryophytes such as liverworts, hornworts, and mosses are small leafy plants which do not have vascular tissue. They are relatively unspecialized, but successful in many terrestrial environments especially moist areas. The most conspicuous part of a nonvascular plant is the green photosynthetic gametophyte, which supports the smaller sporophyte nutritionally. On the other hand, seedless vascular plants have well-developed conducting tissues in their sporophyte. In vascular plants, specialized tissue called xylem conducts water and dissolved minerals within the plant, and tissue called phloem conducts sucrose and hormones within the plant. Seedless vascular plants have a much more conspicuous sporophyte than nonvascular plants do, and many have well-developed conducting systems in the stems, roots, and leaves. Objectives * To study the morphological characteristics of the representative species, * their reproductive features, and * their adaptations to their mode of life. ...read more.


This system helps the bryophyte to anchorage tightly into the substratum, so that it can locate at a better position to obtain the maximum amount of sunlight for carrying out photosynthesis. Moreover, these branching root-liked structures greatly increase the surface area for water and nutrients absorption under the ground. For Lycopodium, the horizontal stems produce roots at frequent intervals along their length, allowing the stem to grow indefinitely along the ground. Therefore, it possesses adventitious true roots in addition to rhizoids For Equisetum, the leaves are greatly reduced, in whorls of small, segments fused into nodal sheaths. Therefore, the surface area for transpiration throuhgh the lamina is greatly reduced.Water loss can be prevented and thus it can survive even in dry condition. For ferns, they possess fronds which are highly dissected, feathery and relatively big in size compared with others. Larger leaves can greatly increase the surface area for sunlight absorption for carrying out photosynthesis and also act as and umbrella-like covering to protect the sori. At maturity, the spores are catapulted from the sporangium by snapping action. ...read more.


free swimming with water Multiflagellated, free swimming with water Sex of gametophyte unisexual bisexual bisexual The nutrition dependence of the sporophyte Sporophytes depend on gametophyte Only young sporophytes depend on gametophyte Only young sporophytes depend on gametophyte Site where spores are produced capsule strobili Spores are produced in the sporangia on the lower surface of a frond Sex of gametophyte unisexual bisexual bisexual Mature sporophyte No stem, leaves or roots; only have capsule, seta and foot; semi-dependent on gametophyte; have little or no photosynthetic ability It has true leaves, stem and roots; Able to carry out photosynthesis producing food by themselves It has true leaves, stem and roots; Depending on gametophyte for nutrients at the early stage but once it matures, it can carry out photosynthesis producing food by themselves Conclusion After studying the representative species, we can have a clearer concept among their morphological characteristics, reproductive features, and different adaptations to their mode of life as well as understanding more about their life cycle. Reference http://www.bbg.org/gar2/topics/plants/handbooks/ferns/3.html http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sori Biology of plant, by W.H. Freeman and company Worth Publisher Biology, by Peter H. Raven, George B. Johnson, Jonathan B. Losos and Susan R. Singer 1 ...read more.

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