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Hardness of water

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Skill B&C Title: Hardness of water Aim: Test the hardness of water Apparatus: Sea water, Rain water, Tap water, Aqua pure(bottled water), detergent, large cylinder Method: 1. Place approximately 20 ml of sea water in cylinder 2. Add a few drops of detergent and shake vigorously 3. Record all data collected 4. Repeated steps one to three for all different types of water 5. Process the results in a suitable manner 6. Clean up work area Observation: When detergent is added to a cylinder with water and then shaken suds are produced. Aqua pure water produced the most suds and the Sea water barley lathered at all and instead produced a greyish scum. ...read more.


{See Graph for Details} Rain Water: Volume of suds = final - Initial = 71.3 ml - 50ml Volume of suds = 21.3 ml Tap Water: Volume of suds = final - Initial = 65.28ml - 50ml Volume of suds = 15.28 ml Sea Water: Volume of suds = final - Initial = 53.11ml - 50ml Volume of suds = 3.11ml Aqua pure: Volume of suds = final- Initial = 92.2ml - 50ml Volume of suds = 42.2ml Nautilus: Volume of suds = final - Initial = 80. 64ml - 50ml Volume of suds = 30.64ml Source of error: * Could have poured more than 2 drops of detergent * Misreading of cylinder * Could have shaken each water test with more or less vigour than I did with the others. ...read more.


Water, being the universal solvent readily dissolves most ionic compounds, which is why it is rarely ever exists in a pure state. Each type of water has a different level hard or soft. Drinking water such as Aqua pure and Nautilus are the softest of the 5.. Tap water is not soft due to exposure to different compounds in the water like Calcium Carbonate (Limestone). Sea water contains a large variety of dissolved minerals and pollutants which hamper lathering making it the hardest of the water varieties. The softest water would be rain water as rain falls as pure water but the risk of contamination when collecting rain water is high thus it's unusually low suds production . The Lather Test is very reliable if there is no other way to test water. ...read more.

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