• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Research Study C4 Keeping Clean

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Research Study C4 Keeping Clean 1) a) (i) Synthetic detergents were first developed in German by a Belgian chemist. [1][2] (ii) They were developed just before World War 1 in 1913. [1][2] b) (i) and (ii) [2] Surfactants- grease and wet surfaces. Abrasive- to scour. Substances to change the pH or to affect performance or stability of other ingredients. Water Softener- soften harder ions in the ingredients. Oxidants-for bleaching, disinfecting and breaking down organic compounds. Non-surfactant materials that keep dirt in suspension. Enzymes- digest proteins, fats or carbohydrates in stains, or modify the feel of the fabric. ...read more.

Middle

The hydrophobic tail attaches to the grease. The hydrophilic head attaches to the water. The molecule lifts the grease of the material which then dissolves in the water. Therefore removing the stain. 4) a) Soap is used for cleaning our hands and liquid soap for shower gel. Detergent is used in washing machines to clean laundry. Detergents are also used in dishwashers. [5] b) Detergents [8] Advantages Disadvantages Can be used to soften hard water. Can cause water pollution due to biodegradability. Have a stronger cleansing action than soap. ...read more.

Conclusion

This caused problems as water then foamed when coming out of the tap, it also caused sewerage treatment problems. [6][7]The advantages of detergents is that we use alkyl benzene instead of keryl benzene), alkyl benzene is biodegradable so the lakes don't become foamy and the sewerage systems are better. They can clean fabrics in acidic waters, since detergents come from petroleum we can save vegetable oil for cooking uses. [7]The disadvantages of detergents are that many aren't completely biodegradable in waters and the treatment to the waters is a problem, some of the surfactants are dangerous to aquatic life when the detergent enters an aquatic habitat, detergents tend inhibit oxidation of organic substances present in wastewaters because they form a seal around them. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE Classics section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related GCSE Classics essays

  1. Science case study

    Raising the pH of smoke changes the chemical form of nicotine so that it is more rapidly absorbed by the body which can result in nicotine hits. Sugar - sugar accounts for about 3% of the total weight of a cigarette and when it is lit it begins to burn and produce acetaldehyde which enhances the effect of nicotine.

  2. Who made the greatest contribution to the Athenian Constitution?

    In terms of democracy, each tribe had to provide men for the Council of 500 (explained a bit later), the army, the boards of officials and the law courts, as well as provide teams for the Panathenaia and the City Dionysia.

  1. Research into businesses involving food, clothes or hairdressing.

    These charities include universities and are called "exempt charities". Well known national charities such as NSPC and shelter. Are some of the vast numbers of local charities serving their local communities, general charities are defined by four key criteria which are that- - They are independent of and separate from government and business.

  2. Citizenship coursework B OCR Nationals

    will read it; this can be seen in places like, "Serena Smith.. Wondered why:" where the writer mentions the person's name. They have made it the most appealing to the target audience through the BBC website. Through this article it is explained why some people are "opposed to this idea".

  1. Romeo and Juliet Scence 5

    Romeo's sudden transformation in mood and Juliet's detachment from her obligations to her father regarding her husband to be, Paris changes the character's role. Romeo and Juliet fall in love instantly yet Romeo is disappointed to learn that Juliet is a Capulet, he's family eternal enemy, Shakespeare shows us that their love is destined for misfortune.

  2. Gladiatorial games and what made them so exciting

    The day before the event, a public banquet (coena libera) was given for the gladiators, some of whom gorged themselves at what might be their last meal, others eating in hopeful anticipation of the next day, and some with no appetite at all, terrified at the prospect of what was to come.

  1. Book II - Aeneid

    the gates are thrown open, it is pleasing to see the greek camp and the places and abandoned shore: hic (est - not in text) Dolopum manus, hic saevus tendebat Achilles; (most brave and beautiful of the greeks) here a band of Greeks, here savage Achilles could be found; classibus hic (est - not in text)

  2. Medea - A study of the character of Jason.

    Jason is acting just like most men in his position would - Medea is an exile, so Jason is not bound to her in marriage in the true spirit, and as we have seen, she is being betrayed for her own benefit[page].

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work