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Research Study C4 Keeping Clean

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Research Study C4 Keeping Clean 1) a) (i) Synthetic detergents were first developed in German by a Belgian chemist. [1][2] (ii) They were developed just before World War 1 in 1913. [1][2] b) (i) and (ii) [2] Surfactants- grease and wet surfaces. Abrasive- to scour. Substances to change the pH or to affect performance or stability of other ingredients. Water Softener- soften harder ions in the ingredients. Oxidants-for bleaching, disinfecting and breaking down organic compounds. Non-surfactant materials that keep dirt in suspension. Enzymes- digest proteins, fats or carbohydrates in stains, or modify the feel of the fabric. ...read more.


The hydrophobic tail attaches to the grease. The hydrophilic head attaches to the water. The molecule lifts the grease of the material which then dissolves in the water. Therefore removing the stain. 4) a) Soap is used for cleaning our hands and liquid soap for shower gel. Detergent is used in washing machines to clean laundry. Detergents are also used in dishwashers. [5] b) Detergents [8] Advantages Disadvantages Can be used to soften hard water. Can cause water pollution due to biodegradability. Have a stronger cleansing action than soap. ...read more.


This caused problems as water then foamed when coming out of the tap, it also caused sewerage treatment problems. [6][7]The advantages of detergents is that we use alkyl benzene instead of keryl benzene), alkyl benzene is biodegradable so the lakes don't become foamy and the sewerage systems are better. They can clean fabrics in acidic waters, since detergents come from petroleum we can save vegetable oil for cooking uses. [7]The disadvantages of detergents are that many aren't completely biodegradable in waters and the treatment to the waters is a problem, some of the surfactants are dangerous to aquatic life when the detergent enters an aquatic habitat, detergents tend inhibit oxidation of organic substances present in wastewaters because they form a seal around them. ...read more.

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