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# Ruler of All

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Ruler of All Michelle Whang Partner: Cecilia An Date Done: September 21, 2007 Date Turned In: September 28, 2007 Section: Business Chem. Section 2 Purpose The purpose of this lab was to verify the certainty of a range of measuring devices, and to correctly establish the number of significant figures to record the measurements as well as to calculate them. Experimental Procedure See the attached experiment. Data See the attached data. Theoretical Section/Discussion of Results Everybody makes and utilizes measurements on a daily basis. Scientists, not excluding, make and use measurements, because it is fundamental to their data. Measurement is how much there is of something that you can quantify.1 Measurements include a number and unit. All measuring instruments are susceptible to a certain amount of uncertainty. Uncertainty is accounted by instrument design and can be best defined as the degree of variability in the observations.2 In a measurement, estimation is always done to one more place value than what is already calibrated on the instrument. Usually, the more calibrated it is, the more numbers an instrument will allow to be recorded, which means the more certain the value is. In every lab, it is every scientist's goal to generate measurements that are both correct and reproducible. ...read more.

Middle

In all three objects that were measured; the black box, the water in the graduated cylinder and the area of the table, an increase in significant figures were noticeable. For example, the black box was measured with Ruler A, which was calibrated by only one meter; the dimensions of the box were .3 x .3 x .3 meters. Using the rules of uncertainty, and employing the system of scientific notation it becomes 3 x 10 -3 meters cubed. Since the directions want the volume in liters; dimensional analysis can be used to convert the answer into 30 L. The answer has only one significant figure. Using Ruler D, after all calculations the answer comes out to be 22.78 liters. The numbers of significant figures increase to four, which also increases precision. It is accurate in that it is far closer to the correct volume of 22.4 liters. The rest of the calculations can be done in the same manner, using the basic rule of significant figures and conversions, and similar results will be produced. ("See attached data" for in depth calculations). From this, an observation can be made. The more calibrated the instrument the more precise and accurate results can be found, assuming that no human error is involved. ...read more.

Conclusion

2. As the instrument got more calibrated, the answers started getting more and more precise. It went from 30 liters to 22 to 22.7 and finally 22.78 liters. The final three answers are very much precise, but the first one is off due to the fact that it was only allowed to round to one significant figure. Even so, the set of numbers can be named precise, because as a whole they are pretty much close together. Although the measurement was off by .38 liters, this number is not that significant and 22.78 liters can still be counted as an accurate record of the box's volume. 3. Overall, everybody in the class had fairly precise and accurate results. All of the answers were 22 and then somewhat liters, suggesting that the results were precise. Without knowing the true value, accuracy would be unknown. When comparing the results to the true value of 22. 4 liters, the results ranged from 22.18 to 22.78 liters which was � .38 from 22.4 liters. The fact that all the results had less than a .5 difference amongst each other showed the answers were impressive and proved to be accurate and precise against the claimed volume of the box. 1 http://wordnet.princeton.edu/perl/webwn?s=measure 2 www.sec.noaa.gov/forecast_verification/Glossary.html 3 Prentice Hall Chemistry 4 Prentice Hall Chemistry ?? ?? ?? ?? 2 Whang ...read more.

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