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HACCP: A BETTER APPROACH TO FOOD SAFETY MANAGEMENT IN FOOD AND DAIRY INDUSTRIES. Kayode, J.O.1; Azare, B.A.1* and Adeyemo, M.O.1,2 1Department of Biological Sciences, University of Abuja, Nigeria 2National Agency for Food and Drug Administration and Control, Abuja, Nigeria ABSTRACT Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) is a systematic process of analyzing every step of a production operation, looking at each step of the process, determining where hazards can occur (critical control points) and then instituting a system of controls to keep the hazards within critical limits. This paper reviews the twelve tasks in the application of HACCP, integrating the seven HACCP principles and provides the knowledge and background necessary to establish HACCP plans and/or verify the acceptability of existing quality control systems. It reviews food safety issues in Nigeria, recognizing the Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) which is important in HACCP plan implementation, as the existing quality management system in use in most NAFDAC-registered food and dairy industries in Nigeria and makes recommendations for achieving food safety assurance. Keywords: Assurance, Critical, Control, Hazard, Quality. INTRODUCTION "Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point," or HACCP (pronounced "hassip"), has become synonymous with food safety. It is a worldwide-recognized systematic and preventive approach that addresses biological, chemical and physical hazards through anticipation and prevention, rather than through end-product inspection and testing. (Rabi et al., 2004) Traditionally, the safety of food products, including meat and poultry commodities, has been controlled (and still is) by inspection of the final product. More recently, and with the introduction of the Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points (HACCP) system, the process of food inspection is being modernized. ...read more.


This plan should aid in the identification of any areas of potential cross-contamination within the establishment. 5. On-site confirmation of flow diagram The HACCP team should confirm the processing operation against the flow diagram during all stages and hours of operation and amend the flow diagram where appropriate. This will ensure that all the major process operations have been identified. It will also confirm the assumptions made with respect to the movement of product and employees on the premises. Adjustments should be made to the flow diagram, as necessary based on the actual operations observed. 6. List all potential hazards associated with each step, conduct a hazard analysis, and consider measures to control identified hazards (Principle 1) Hazard analysis is the first HACCP principle. Technical expertise and scientific background in various domains is required for proper identification of all potential hazards. The HACCP team should list all of the hazards that may be reasonably expected to occur at each step from primary production, processing, manufacture, and distribution until the point of consumption. The HACCP team should next conduct a hazard analysis to identify for the HACCP plan which hazards are of such a nature that their elimination or reduction to acceptable levels is essential to the production of a safe food. The team must then consider what control measures, if any, exist which can be applied for each hazard. More than one control measure may be required to control a specific hazard(s) and more than one hazard may be controlled by a specified control measure. 7. Determine Critical Control Points (Principle 2) There may be more than one CCP at which control is applied to address the same hazard. ...read more.


This is because most factories rely on public analysts for this analysis since they don't have analytical laboratories in place. Although most NAFDAC certified yogurt factories have Manufacturing Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) in place for production, they do not have the facilities for the implementation of the HACCP system and hence, cannot guarantee the safety of their products. The Government and regulatory agencies should take the adoption of the HACCP system more seriously. CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS In conclusion, the Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point System offer the most promising opportunity any economy can take advantage of to ensure that consumers are assured of the quality of products they consume. The adoption and application of HACCP as a public policy for the establishment of industries is recommended. Adequate steps should be taken to compel food industries to meet safety requirements, such as assessment of food safety, training of personnel, technology transfer and strengthening of the national food control system. The main food safety and quality problems encountered with the country's exports Include; Product quality (problem of HACCP); Poor packaging and dearth of compliance and health certificates hence, the Government should fulfill its obligation in consumer protection, support the food industry (particularly medium- and small-scale food industry) and render assistance to industry in trade opportunities where certification is required. Regulatory Verification should be a routine part of regularly scheduled government inspections. Verification should include a review of the company consumer complaint file. Compliance actions should be enforced when regulatory verifications indicate deficiencies in the HACCP plan or implemented HACCP system that could result in health hazards in the food products. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I acknowledge the effort of Dr. Azare, B.A and Mrs. Adeyemo, M.O for their contributions to the success of this work. ...read more.

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