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Aim: To produce a basic yeast leavened straight dough by kneading and proofing.

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Expt 1A dough formation Aim: To produce a basic yeast leavened straight dough by kneading and proofing. Principle: A basic yeast leavened straight dough can be prepare by mixing hard flour, wheat flour, sucrose, salt, active dried yeast culture, then add butter and fully mixed in the butter. Then water is added. By kneading the dough, a smooth elastic consistency is formed. The elasticity is developed because the gluten is rearranged. Lastly, place the well-kneaded dough in a warm oven to let the dough proof. Result: The dough had rise. It risen to about twice its origin volume. Discussion: The ingredient can influence dough rising. Sucrose carry out the glucose fermentation, the salt support the fermentation by yeast and the water helps to activate the dried yeast culture. Carbon dioxide is produced as the product of fermentation. The carbon dioxide is trapped inside the dough. Once the dough is put into a warm oven the higher temperature will cause an expansion of gas inside dough, result in a size increase. ...read more.


So there are air bubbles in the interior of bread, making it spongy. The dough had expanded again during baking. It not only causes by expanded of carbon dioxide in dough. More important, it is due to the baking temperature is 200�C exceed the boiling point of water i.e. 100�C, so the water content in dough had changed from liquids to gaseous state(form steam). Gas occupy a large area than liquid causing the dough to rise again. Expt 2 Browning reaction Aim: To investigate the ingredients that is necessary for a browning reaction. Principle: By mixing solution according to following table. Tube 1 2 3 4 Glucose solution ml 0 4 0 4 Glycine solution ml 0 0 4 4 Water ml 8 4 4 0 And place the test tube in a 120 C hot oven for at least 1 hour. Observe whether browning of solution occurs. The component need in the browning reaction can be determine. As browning will not occur if anyone of these is missing. ...read more.


Discussion: In the same baking powder content, sample A rise more than sample B. showing that hard flour has a greater effect on expansion. With same flour used, the increase in content in baking powder, the sample will rise greater. Hard flour has a higher gluten content than soft flour.The dough using hard flour can rise bigger because the gluten in the flour forms an elastic network which traps the carbon dioxide gas given off by the yeast more effectively. The more gluten, the greater the bread dough's tendency to rise. The baking powder has a function of releasing carbon dioxide into dough. With more baking powder used more carbon dioxide is release . As the carbon dioxide will expand at high temperature, the dough will rise. The chemical leavening agent used to increase the volume and lighten the texture. The agent works by releasing carbon dioxide into dough through and acid base reaction. Take a common baking powder(baking soda) as an example, its reaction is : Chemical leavening agent is commonly used instead of yeast to generate carbon dioxide. It is because carbon dioxide is released in a faster rate through acid base reaction than fermentation. ...read more.

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