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Animal and plant diversity

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Introduction

Animal and plant diversity Introduction: There are five kingdoms of living things. They are the Animal, Plant, Fungi, Monera and the Protists kingdom. The Protist Kingdom is made up of single-celled organisms. All of the protists are eukaryotic and there are about 50 000 species of protists. Some of the examples of protists are amoeba, paramecium, euglena, chlamydomonas, and stentor. These tiny organisms are mostly microscopic but some can be macroscopic. Most of these are found in fresh water, sea, moist soil and in the bodies of animals. Most of the protist species are heterotrophic which means that they feed off other living things. Some are autotrophs; examples of these are Amoeba, paramecium, and euglena. There are some species that contain chloroplast to make their own food by photosynthesis. Some others have different ways of containing their food or catching their prey. Protozoans have developed a number of different ways to move. Protozoans can move with the help of cilia and flagella which are hair-like structures that stick out, they function to help the cells move. Pseudopodia movement helps the cell facilitate to capture their prey. (Wilkinson, 1987) Protists have simple cell structures that have a variety of functions, hence making them different to plants and animals. The functions of these cells are being able to digest, excrete, reproduce, move, and respirate. ...read more.

Middle

10. Pack up the equipment. Results: Features Amoeba Paramecium Euglena Chlamydomonas Stentor Mac/microscopic Micro Micro Micro Micro Mac Movement pseudopodia Cilia Flagella Flagella Cilia Speed Didn't move Fast Fast No movement Rapid Colour Clear Yellow, brown Lime green Dark green Green Organelles visible Yes Yes, Yes Yes Yes Eye visible No No Yes red No No Shape Round oval Long Long oval Round Slipper and round Other features Cytostome(mouth) No cell wall Drawing of euglena: Magnification of euglena: Discussion: How do Amoeba and paramecium obtain their food? Paramecium obtains its food by firstly using their cilia to sweep food, The food then leads into a funnel-like structure called the gullet. Paramecium's food vacuoles surround the incoming food which pinches off into the cytoplasm. Food is then digested and the nutrients are circulated. After the work of the food vacuoles is finished, it joins with the area of the pellicles called the anal pore. The anal pores empty waste materials into the water and if the paramecium is then disturbed it may release sharp spines called trichochysts. Amoebas obtain their food by using their pseudopods. If the amoeba wants food, it expands a thick, round pseudopod from part of its cell, and the rest of the cells flow into the pseudopod to surround the food. ...read more.

Conclusion

Like animal cells, euglena has a long whip like flagellum used for locomotion. The body is typically elongated and somewhat spindle-shaped. It is enclose by a flexible, striated pellicle made chiefly of protein. The front end of the body forms a flask-shaped cavity, or reservoir. Extending from the reservoir is the flagellum. During active locomotion it is swung backward, and waves pass rapidly from its base to its tip. When an individual is in contact with a surface, peristaltic waves pass along the elastic pellicle resulting in a limited form of locomotion called euglenoid movement. What problems (if any) were encountered? How could these be fixed? Some of the protists had died by the time the amoeba and chlamydomonas could be viewed. This could have been fixed if people avoided squeezing them, and if chlaydomonas were sent alive to the experiment. Euglena had also died but the teacher allowed use of new sample. How could this prac be improved? This practical could be improved if we had prior knowledge of protists and the practical. If the some of the protists were alive, movement could have been detected. Conclusion: The aim of the experiment was achieved except one organism didn't move, and hence no observations other than appearance could be made. The tiny little organisms could be easily viewed where organisms had variety of shapes and colours. All were different to each other, even though they all belonged to the same kingdom. ...read more.

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