• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Crude Oil and the petrochemistry industry.

Extracts from this document...


Gahena Mohanani Y11-2 CHEMISTRY ESSAY ON CRUDE OIL (production and refining) AND THE PETROCHEMISTRY INDUSTRY How is it Crude Oil extracted? Crude oil is a vital and extremely sourceful fossil fuel that is obtained from under the ground or under the sea. Crude oil is in fact defined as a mixture of saturated hydrocarbons. These hydrocarbons have boiling points which are extremely close together. Once a possible site for oil has been found, a test drilling is made. This is very expensive because the well may be dry or yield only gas- basically oil might not be able to be extracted and the entire process of 'testing'for this factor is time consuming and expensive due to the equipment used. A land drilling rig is used to extract the oil. Different types of drill heads are used for different layers of rocks., as each layer has a different level of sensitivity. ...read more.


Now, a new process is required to convert the raw crude oil into a fuel that supplies countless services and amenities. This process is known as refinsing They can be separated by fractional distillation and a fractioning column is used for this process. DIAGRAM OF FRACTIONAL COLUMN How Does A Fractioning Column Work? The vapors are basically forced up the columm. As this happens they pass through bubble caps through which some of the vapor condenses. This happens lots of times and because of this mainly only the (thin) volatile liquids with low boiling points reach the top of the column. The heavier liquids, which have a higher boiling point, continually condense and run down to the bottom. Up the column liquids of different boiling points are collected at different levels. ...read more.


This is known as cracking and it basically the process of breaking down the heavy oil molecules into lighter and more useful fractions. There are two types of cracking- stream cracking and catalytic cracking. In steam cracking high temperatures are used. In catalytic cracking, a catalyst is used to speed up the process. The plant where all this takes place is called a cracker. Once these processes are over new products are created i.e. ethylene, propylene, butadiene, benzene, toluene, xylenes. These are then processed in other petrochemical plants into other more specialized products. It sometimes takes more than one step for these products to be ready to be used by the 'downstream industries', the customer industries of petrochemistry. It depends on each product. Finally the petrochemicals are turned in to plastics soaps, detergents, healthcare products such as aspirin, synthetic fibers for clothes and furnitures, rubbers paints and insulating materials. The petrochemical industry is a very signifigant and important industry in our world today, being the source of many modern utilities. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE Resistant Materials section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related GCSE Resistant Materials essays

  1. Analysis of Existing Products.

    Even though it has the biggest advantages of being mobile, I think it is useless otherwise. This is because like can be seen above all the mobile cabinets around the world are focused for different purposes rather than books. The portable bookshelf like the one shown on the top left is so heavy that they are unable to move easily.

  2. Material Selection for Oil and Gas Material 3

    ultimate strength, yield, Hardness etc.) Lab and field specifications Welding specs Mechanical stress allowance, and heat treatment methods and limits Question 11 You work for a pressure relief manufacturer and he has assigned you the task of selecting a material for the helical spring to be used on a new series of pressure relief units.

  1. Sports Equipment -To carry out tests on different types of grip.

    RESISTANCE TO WEAR Resistance to wear is an experiment to check how fast something wears away. So we are going to do this test on the trainer (shoe) to find out which is the better quality one. Before carrying out this test I am predicting that my NIKE trainer (Shoe)

  2. Material Selection for Oil and Gas Material 2

    Question 5 A fluid cross flow amine heat exchanger is used in a sweetening process and operates at 38 oC and at a pressure of 20 psig. The fluid has some dissolved carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulphide. Select materials for fabrication of the heat exchanger.

  1. Materials - Which is better: Man made or Natural?

    Examples are, Mild steel, High carbon steel, Stainless steel. Non-ferrous metals do not contain iron. They usually have very good working properties, and are usually very easily joined by heat.

  2. The task has been set to make a hole punch (used to punch holes ...

    CAM involves computer controlled devices which work at high speeds and at a very high accuracy - even the tools on the machines are changed automatically. The main advantage with CAM is that man does not have to aid it in any way, other than switching the machine on and off.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work