• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Describe how the three features of the labour process interact and give an example of how these have changed in one particular job (e.g. office work) over a period of time.

Extracts from this document...


Describe how the three features of the labour process interact and give an example of how these have changed in one particular job (e.g. office work) over a period of time. You should pay particular attention to the benefits of change, showing who gains from advances in technology for instance. Primarily to understand the rational of the subject we must establish the three features of the labour process as originally defined by Karl Marx: * Material (the subject of the work). * Tools (instruments of work). * Labours (the personal activity of man). 2 Secondly, it is necessary to state that "The capitalist labour process is one in which the interests of the capital-owning class are represented by managements whose basic task is to design, control and monitor work tasks and activities so as to ensure the effective extraction of surplus value from the labour activity of employees. A" (Watson, 1995, p260) 1 The three features of the labour process interact in the modern day workplace in just about every single aspect of human working. As private companies strive to make profit (the fundamental reason for their existence), and as other non-profit-making entities seek maximum efficiency within their operations, thus optimum output levels from workers becomes an organizational objective. The activity of workers (Labours) is determined by numerous sociological and financial factors (Maslows Hierarchy of needs and Herzbergs Hygiene and Motivating factors), as well as by the type and/or quality of 'Tools' which they are provided with to complete their allotted tasks. ...read more.


the advent of the modern office, the personal computer and computer systems. First of all, calculators were invented (new Tools) which changed the nature of the work (Labours) of clerical workers as well as enhanced the output (Material) limits of these clerical workers. This actually meant that these workers could do more work and with better accuracy, assuming that sufficient training was given to use the new tools. Greater work output (Material) and increased accuracy meant that fewer workers were needed to complete the same amount of work as before, a direct benefit for the employing organization. The activity of work (Labours) became a great deal more interesting for the clerks, as new 'Tools' meant that they could perform their duties in a different way. The 'Tools' were 'Labour' saving devices, but also 'Labour' improving devices. The quality of work output (Material) could be greatly improved by the use of new 'Tools'. This advancement in technology continued with the introduction of computers (advanced Tools) into the workplace some thirty or so years ago. This was a real revolution in the workplace improving worker outputs (Labours and Material) hugely. In the modern office environment, especially in an accountants office, a required 'Material' of work is generally set by the employer or their representatives in the form of managers; whom may also set particular criteria or methodologies to be followed in the undertaking or the completion (Labours) ...read more.


more freedom. Also, it enables the clerk to become more flexible in how they perform their duties. Empowering a worker by providing them the best 'Tools' to complete their job is a proven method of optimising their output (Material). It can therefore be concluded (in this example) that investment in modern office equipment and computer technology (Tools) has benefited both the employer and the employee in a variety of ways. The extents to which the derived benefits from change can be quantified are different, and are not specifically financial. Financial benefits to employers might be reduced personnel requirements or reduced working hours from existing staff; both leading to reduced personnel costs. Also, increased quality of output meaning reduced costs of resources (stationary, office equipment, management time etc.). Non-financial (and non-quantifiable) benefits to employers might be, the improved quality of workers output leading to more satisfied and happier workers, in turn creating a more harmonious working environment. Effectiveness in the workplace and quality output brings real customer satisfaction, and the retention of customers is vital for any business. Happy customers promote a positive image of the business and result in good referrals from said customers, which generically attract additional customers. Also, a satisfied and thus flexible workforce is in a position to assist management with business development, whether that is in the form of increasing their output at any given time or changing their output altogether alongside newly emerging office technology. This organizational flexibility puts the business in a much better position to meet the ever changing requirements of the customer. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE Resistant Materials section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related GCSE Resistant Materials essays

  1. ORMOCER®s - A new class of polymeric material.

    On reaction with water only the simple groups are expelled, the others being resistant to hydrolysis, and an inorganic Si-O-Si network is formed in which Si remains bonded to the organic functionalizations.

  2. Create and sell an accessory collection (starting a small business)

    really expensive, specially cotton clothes, that's why people use old attires but they modernize them by using a beaded handbag or a big pin that calls more the attention than the


    Any system that controls the total plant envoirment offers the best safeguard against moisture-related problems and hence increases downtime and improves quality. Plants can control their envoirment by installing air conditioning and dehumidifying facilities. The objective is to keep relative humidity below 35% and temperature below 75*F even in the worst of summer days.

  2. Acrylic Thesis

    The viscous syrup is then poured into molds of desired shape. (2.5) The granular polymerization is accomplish by adding methyl methacrylate monomer to water and agitating the mix to break the monomer into droplets a millimeter or so in size.


    Tie in bundles or put in paper bags. Check with your local program. Steel Cans Food and beverage cans, empty aerosol and paint cans Check with your local program Rinse food and beverage cans. Empty aerosol cans through normal use.

  2. Expedition Skills

    * It shows which way north is. * Enables you to pinpoint a location within at least 100metres by using grid reference. There are also lines identifying latitude and longitude along the sides of OS map scale 1:25,000 and 1:50,000.

  1. Supply Chain Management

    Companies formed strategic supply chain partnerships and alliances which enabled them to greatly increase their efficiency. By the early 1980s, a standard model of an integrated business system for MRP was developed, which completely dominated the manufacturing industry for nearly 15 years.

  2. Analysis of Existing Products.

    As the drawer is pulled out always, the drawer might get a lower durability. Another reason I think this filing cabinet might have a lower durability is because of my carelessness. While pulling things I am quite careless and might pull it so fast that it might totally come out and break either my foot or the drawer itself.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work