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Explain the need for nutrition by living organisms.

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BIOLOGY ASSIGNMENT 1) EXPLAIN THE NEED FOR NUTRITION BY LIVING ORGANISMS. Nutrition is the science of how our bodies obtain energy, build tissue, and control body functions using materials supplied in the food we eat. Nutrients are chemical substances needed by the body. The need for nutrition by living organisms is essential for survival in the sense that it provides energy and material for growth and repair and for the general function of the human system and its maintenance. Different foods we eat contain at least one of the seven major nutrients namely; carbohydrate, protein, fats, vitamins, minerals, roughages and water. There are two types of nutrition Heterotrops and Autotrops - We are unable to make our own food from the sun as plants do. We get our food by eating plants or other animals. Our bodies need food for a variety of reasons: Growth: Food, especially proteins, makes new cells and tissues as we grow. Energy: The body is like a working machine that needs energy to keep it going. During cellular respiration food is changed into energy for many activities e.g. the heart pumping blood around our bodies. Energy rich foods are carbohydrates and fats. Replacing worn out and damaged tissues: Our cells are constantly dying or getting old so they need to be replaced. Red blood cells carry oxygen needed to live and therefore must be replaced regularly. Proteins, fats and mineral salts are especially important. 2) EXPLAIN WHY THE MAJOR NUTRIENTS ARE REQUIRED BY HUMANS. There are seven major nutrients, which are required by humans; Carbohydrates-are compounds made of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen (C6 H12 O6) They are energy providing foods for the body cells, they provide instant energy. These include rice, potatoes, pasta, bread and all starchy foods and sugars. There are three types of carbohydrates-monosaccharides- are single sugars such as glucose and fructose a sugar found in fruits, disaccharides- consist of two single sugars linked together, these include table sugar lactose, and maltose, and polysaccharides - is a long chain of sugars such as those in bread, pasta, and potatoes. ...read more.


Once this is achieved, an enzyme; pancreatic lipase, converts lipids into glycerol and fatty acids which is readily absorbed from the guts. Through these actions, the liver acts to produce and process fat so that it can be utilized or stored. This suggests that the absence or over and under production of the enzymes can be devastating because concentration of cholesterol may occur and this could have major implications on the gall bladder as it forms gall stones. This may result in the blockage of the bile duct causing severe discomfort. 5) ANALYSE EFFECTIVELY DIETARY INFORMATION (DATA) AND IDENTIFY AND EXPLAIN THE CONSEQUENCES OF DIETARY PROBLEMS. What nutrients do we find in food? All food contains a mixture of different nutrients. These are carbohydrates, proteins, fats, vitamins, minerals, fibre and water. Carbohydrates, proteins and fats are needed in larger amounts than vitamins, minerals, fibre and water. They are all very important in keeping our bodies normal and working properly. Food can be divided into two main groups, organic and inorganic. ORGANIC NUTRIENTS: Fats, protein, carbohydrate and fibre are organic substances. These are made by living organisms. INORGANIC NUTRIENTS: Vitamins, minerals and water form this group. They are mostly found in other foods such as fruits and vegetables. Proteins, carbohydrates, fats and fibre are measured in grams because they make up the largest portion of the cereal. Mineral and vitamins are usually only found in small amounts and so are measured in milligrams. Carbohydrates Carbohydrates can be grouped into starch, sugars and cellulose. Cereals, potatoes, rice and bread are high in starch, while table sugar, sweets and biscuits contain a lot of sugar. Carbohydrates give us energy, so we call it an energy food. The body only needs a certain amount of carbohydrates to keep us alive. If we eat more than our body needs it will store it as fat on the hips, the stomach and the legs to be used later. ...read more.


Possible options to be explained where the liver presents problems, is abstinence from eating protein rich food and the reduction of potentials for toxification. 8) IDENTIFY THE VARIOUS PARTS OF THE KIDNEY (AT A GROSS AND MICROSCOPIC LEVEL) AND EXPLAIN THE FUNCTIONS AND ACTIONS OF THE VARIOUS PARTS. The kidneys are two bean-shaped organs and is situated on each side of the spinal cord near the lower back and protected by the ribs. The kidney is composed of an outer layer, the cortex, and an inner core, the medulla. It also consists of repeating units (tubules) called nephrons. The "tops" of these nephrons make up or are in the cortex, while their long tubule portions make up the medulla. Each nephron has a closely associated blood supply. Blood comes in at the glomerulus and transfers water and solutes to the nephron at the Bowman's capsule. In the proximal tubule, water and some "good" molecules are absorbed back into the body, while a few other, unwanted molecules or ions are added to the urine. Then, the filtrate goes down the loop of henle. In the proximal tubule, water and some "good" molecules are absorbed back into the body, while a few other, unwanted molecules are added to the urine. Henle (in the medulla) where more water is removed (back into the bloodstream) on the way "down", but the "up" side is impervious to water. Some NaCl (salt) is removed from the filtrate at this point to adjust the amount in the fluid, which surrounds the tubule. Capillaries wind around and exchange materials with the tubule. In the distal tubule, more water and some "good" solutes are removed from the urine, while some more unwanted molecules are put in. From there, the urine flows down a collecting duct, which gathers urine from several nephrons. As the collecting duct goes back through the medulla, more water is removed from the urine. The collecting ducts eventually end up at the renal pelvis, which collects the urine from all of them. Diagram of the Kidney Josephine Swaray 1 ...read more.

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