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Finding optimum conditions for making yoghurt

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Introduction

Finding optimum conditions for making yoghurt Introduction Yoghurt was first made hundreds of years ago in Eastern Europe and western Asia. Yoghurt is made by fermenting milk with a carefully cultured mixture of microorganisms. The milk must be tested and processed before a starter culture of bacteria is added to begin the fermentation. Yoghurt can be made from whole milk, skimmed milk, semi skimmed milk, evaporated milk, dried milk, or any mixture of these. The milk is usually homogenised. Stabilisers can be added to give the yoghurt a better texture. The amount of enthal in yoghurt with a pleasant taste is in the range 23-41 parts per million and this accounts for 90 percent of the volatile flavour. Most yoghurt is produced in large quantities and has a consistency similar to stirred custard. ...read more.

Middle

40 0.0136 =1.3cm/s 1.1 Sweet (5) Thick (4) Smooth (3) 60 0.081 =8.1cm/s 1 Sweet (5) Thick (4) Smooth (2) Whole 5 0.058 =5.8 cm/s 1.1 Smooth (1) Sweet (2) Thickish (3) Offwhite 20 0.048 =4.8 cm/s 1.2 Smooth (1) Sweet (2) Thickish (3) 40 0.035 =3.5cm/s 1.1 Smooth (2) Little sour (3) Runny (2) Cream 60 0.034 =3.4cm/s 1.2 Lumpy (4) Sour (4) Thickish (3) Cream Whole Milk + Added Fat 5 0.021 =2.1cm/s 1 Sweet (2), Runny (1) Smooth (1) Off white. 20 0.010 =1.0 cm/s 1.1 Same as above More off white 40 0.015 =1.5cm/s 1 Sweet (3) Runny (2) Lumpy (4) Creamy colour 60 0.015 =1.5cm/s 1 Same as 40oC Commercial Yoghurt: Manufactured Yogurt Appearance Texture pH of yogurt after incubation Time taken for 5 ml to travel 15 cm (s) ...read more.

Conclusion

When using whole milk we found that forty and sixty degrees were extremely thick and slightly lumpy. These were however more like manufactured yoghurts because they were both slightly sour. Whole milk with added fat at a temperature of forty and sixty was very lumpy but quite sweet as well. In the commercial yoghurt the Muller Thick and Creamy yoghurt had a viscosity of 0.56, the closest to this with the yoghurts that we made was when we used whole milk and a temperature of five degrees Celsius, which reached 0.058.This manufactured yoghurt had a density of 1.060. The viscosity for the manufactured yoghurts was between 0.08 and 0.56. We found that using whole milk and added fat gave the closest viscosity to these with 2.1, 1.0 and 1.5 twice on forty degrees and sixty degrees. The only problem with these is that they were quite lumpy and runny unlike the manufactured yoghurts, which were quite thick. ?? ?? ?? ?? Richard Aldridge 10 Gordon ...read more.

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