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How is iron and steel made?

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Report on Geography Video How is iron and steel made? Iron is made using a blast furnace see below: 1. The three raw materials needed to make iron are added into the top of the furnace. These are: i) Iron ore - found in rocks. This is a gross raw material as it looses weight on being manufactured. ii) Coal - Dug from under the ground in from either "Adit" mines or "Deep shaft" mines. This is needed to heat the furnace. iii) Limestone - Dug from pits similar to the iron ore, this is needed to separate the iron ore from the rocks. 2. Hot air is then added into the furnace 3. The waste material called slag is ejected from the sides of the furnace (this can be used later as a base for roads as it is very hard). ...read more.


It originates from over 200 years ago. It would have properly looked similar to this mill pictured right. Here the raw materials were harvested nearby the trees were cut down to produce charcoal, and lime stone and iron ore were dug from nearby pits and mines. The large metal hammer known as a forge was driven by the water wheel out side. The mill would be built near a river and water would be channelled away down a man made stream and into the mill to power the water wheel. Stage 2 At the next location there is lack of wood for use as fuel so I new fuel had to be found. Coal was the answer. This more modern iron mill was situated near a valley that in its walls contained both coal and limestone. ...read more.


Because of these remote locations many settlements have been established to supply workers to these mines. This is a picture of a mining town in Japan. In places like Western Australia whole mountain tops have been destroyed. 75 % of the worlds iron ore comes from Japan, Australia, and India alone. Japan is the 3rd largest producer of iron ore. Over 30 train loads of iron ore can leave 1 mine in a day. As soon as the iron ore arrives at the coast location it is immediately smelted. This is done to help keep costs low. These iron mills tend to be the biggest, most automated, and most hi-tech mills in Europe. Some can be over 1mile long! The coast location is the most suited to this task as it offers an unlimited amount of transport and cuts down on costs by having most of the iron ore imported from other countries. ...read more.

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