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Specifications for the Ultra Sonic Proximity Detector

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Introduction

Electronics AS coursework Aim To design and build a proximity detector for the rear of a car that is used when it is parking. The sensor's main objective is to decrease stress for the driver and make the task of parking easier and quicker. The sensor will use ultra sound to detect close objects. Initially the project will produce a simple mechanism to portray the idea, which then can be developed. For example the feedback to the driver could just be a buzzer that comes on when the car is too close. Research I chose to use ultra sound in my sensor, because I have had no experience with the components so it would be a good research topic and hopefully prove to be interesting. The transmitter sends out the high frequency pulses, which reflect off of objects and are detected by a receiver. The longer the time between the emission and detection the more the amplitude of the wave decreases. Also the waves are transmitted in a 20? arc, I was able to find these facts from Rapid electronics company whom sent the ultra sound part I requested. ...read more.

Middle

The receiver leads into the op-amp circuit. From a decided distance of 40 cm the amplitude received read 1.8 mV, I needed the voltage to be amplified so it could switch the trigger. The switching voltage of the Schmitt trigger is of the order of about 2 V. This showed me that I needed a gain of about a 1000, which is a lot so problems would occur. The theory proved successful and the gain was achieved; however the op-amp had a lot of regular spikes on it, exceeding the required voltage, also some clipping occurred. If this persisted then it would fault the Schmitt trigger and so the circuit would not work. To stop this I needed the source of the problem, so firstly I tried a smaller gain, which made the spikes smaller, so did not really help. I tried changing the resistor input to the op-amp; this did alter the spikes and clipping but not to a significant enough effect. I eventually found that by using two power supplies, one for the 555 timer and transmitter and the other used with the receiver and the rest of the circuit. ...read more.

Conclusion

Assessing The whole circuit I am pleased to say works well and reliably, however the ultra sound has to be placed in the exactly the right direction, because the waves are easily reflected by any surface. This means the unit will have to be mounted in a suitable position so that the waves will be reflected off the bumper line of vehicles. Limitations and modifications Most of the development took place in the construction and I have detailed these in the sub-systems report. In addition to these I would like to mention some ideas that would improve the sensor. The first is that the sensor only gives one piece of information feedback, if I were to improve this then the more information would make the system safer and more reliable. For example addition latches could be added to trigger the D-type at different distances from the object. This would allow the driver to be more alert when parking. The Final modification I would consider would be to allow the driver more control over the sensor by adding a specific on/off switch and also a timer for the alarm after it is triggered so it does not become annoying for the driver and passengers. Summative Evaluation Proximity detector James Ashley-Smith 1 ...read more.

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