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The investigation of the commercial and processing feasibility of the dairy products

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The investigation of the commercial and processing feasibility of the dairy products contents 1. Introduction: 1.1 Aims 1.2 Objectives 1.3 Background 1.3.1 Traditional dairy products 1.3.2 World markets of dairy products 2. Some aspects needed to be improved to satisfy the demands of consumers and manufacturers 2.1 The trend in developed countries 2.2 The trend in developing countries 3. Developments of new strategies: 3.1 Whey processing 3.2 Fat adjustment 3.3 Probiotics 4. Outlining newly developed techniques used in innovative strategies 4.1 Ultrafiltration 4.2 Dialysis 4.3 Immobilised enzyme system used in lactose hydrolysis 4.4 Ultra High Temperature (UHT) treatment 4.5 Vegetable and marine oils blending with milk fat in fat spreads 4.6 Milk fat fractionation 5. Quality and safety issues associated with the new strategy----case study: yogurt 5.1 Quality and safety of yogurt 5.2 Commercial prospects and yogurt derivatives: 6. Conclusion: 7. References: 1. Introduction: Aims: ? To identify a range of milk sourced products and associated processing procedures. ? To critically evaluate the commercial and processing aspects relevant to varieties of the traditional dairy products. ? To investigate the feasibility of the innovative strategies on dairy products. 1.2 Objectives: ? To identify factors influencing the quality and safety aspects of a range of dairy products. ? To identify the market capacity of those newly developed products through comparisons with traditional dairy products. ? To identify various processes consistent with those innovative strategies. 1.3 Background: 1.3.1 Traditional dairy products: Generally, traditional dairy products can be simply classified into four major groups: liquid milks, fermented milks, concentrated high fat content milks and concentrated dried milks. In terms of the liquid milk products, the markets mainly focus on the pasteurized whole or skimmed milk. Normally, the raw fresh milk would be collected from the farm and further treated in the dairy. The major handling procedures include heat treatment (pasteurization is the most popular method, by which the milk would be heated to 72�C for 15 seconds), homogenization and removal the fat, if skimmed liquid milk was questioned. ...read more.


However, the claimed effects, are by no means fully documented. Occurently, the most commonly used microorganism are lactococcus casei spp casei, Bifidobacterium specises bifidum, infantis, breve, longum and adolescentis (K 1991; H and P 1994; Chandan 1999). 4. Outlining newly developed techniques used in innovative strategies 4.1 Ultrafiltration: Ultrafiltration is a sieving process that employs a membrane (normally synthetic polymers) with definite pores (normally the pore diameters ranging from 1-35 nm) that are large enough to permit the passage of water and small molecules. When pressure is applied to a fluid, the semipermeable membrane allows small species to pass through as permeate and larger species are retained and concentrated as retentate. In ultrafiltration of milk, nonprotein nitrogen and soluble components such as lactose, salts, and some vitamins pass through the membrane, whereas milk fat, protein, and insoluble salts are retained by the membrane (Bulletin 1988.; Hui 1993). The main advantages of this method are: ? Substantial increase in yield since whey protein and minerals inclusion. ? Simple, continuous process open to almost complete automation. ? Reduction in cheese cost since the cost of energy, equipment, and labor is reduced. ? The process uses substantially less salt and rennet. The main disadvantages are: ? Cheese becomes very homogeneous and has a high bulk density. ? The acidification is slow for high buffer capacity. ? Very viscous retentate is difficult to mix with starter and rennet, and can't be cooled without solidification. ? Cheese does not correspond to its definition in properties. 4.2 Dialysis: Dialysis is a technique employing the difference in concentration as a driving force to separate large particles from small ones in a solution, for example, proteins from salts. The rate of diffusion varies with the difference in concentration, so dialysis can be speeded up if the solvent on the other side of the membrane is changed often (Pak 1995). 4.3 Immobilized enzyme system in lactose hydrolysis Immobilization techniques are widely used in lactose industry. ...read more.


10.8 638.0 Iceland 8.6 2.1 India 4.3 3410.0 Israel 9.4 41.8 Italy 2.4 135.0 Japan 3.8 465.0 Netherlands 18.2 278.5 Norway 4.3 18.0 South Africa 1.6 47.2 USA 2.3 517.9 Source: Y. H. Hui 1993 adapted from International Dairy Federation 1990 It can be seen from the table, the consumption of yogurt constitutes a remarkable share of the total dairy products market, and there still are potentials in yogurt market not only in the developed countries but also in some developing countries. It was predicted that the recent world marketing strategy would focus on the lower fat content, niche product, and more important, the "bio" yogurt. In 1994, reported �35 million had consumed in UK on the "bio" type yogurt (Ralph Early 1998). It would be expected an increase will occur in coming years. It also was believed by Chandon et al (1999) that fluid milk and several dairy products are an excellent medium to generate an array of products that fit into the current consumer demand for health-driven foods. It is evident that there is scope for many companies to make use of this fact and add value to their existing products and/or enter the market with a new concept. Among these, a product called BRA milk, for example, was recently introduced on the Swedish market (Pak 1995). 6. Conclusion: Followed with the changes of direct or potential demands of consumers and manufacturers, more innovative strategies are required to improve the quality and safety issues of the dairy products. From the arguments provided above, one can say that it's sensible to invest on the developments of new strategies about innovative dairy products or innovative processing techniques. The great market potential in both developed and less developed areas predicts that the innovative products will play a more important role in the dairy industry in future. Although some innovative techniques are still not suitable for commercial application and further investigation on specific market's capacity are needed to be carried out, development and management on certain innovative strategies are believed of great profitability. 7. ...read more.

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