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Water level sensor

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As Sensor Physics Coursework Water level sensor -By Leo Contents: Aim; Planning; Circuit Equipments needed; Theory Safety; Experiment; Problem & Improvement Tables & Graphs Evaluation Aim In ordinary life, water level sensors are quite widely used. For example: An oil level sensor inside an oil tank, to measure how much oil is left in it because we cannot see it every time, and just find the level on our meters. Also a boiler works on the similar principle, the water in the boiler is quite hot and if we want to see how much the water is, we will be hurt by the vapour. We need the meter for it too. Because water level sensors are very important and there is no alternative for it, I prefer to investigate water level sensors as my coursework. Planning My main equipment is the fixed resistor and uses a float to connect with it using potential divider. While the water level changes, the resistance changes as can be shown on the change of the voltage because the ohm's law: V=IR. For my circuit, when the resistance changes by the level of water, the voltage changes with direct proportional to resistance. As the water level increased, the Resistance of water level sensor Increase as well. So the voltage share will be change. using R=R1+R2 What is potential divider? The potential divider circuit is the voltage split up between the components. ...read more.


Because the base of the beaker was not horizontal so the first one was used to make sure the second ruler got the right position and could make the inaccuracy smaller. There was about 0.8cm per 100ml. So I can calculate the height of any levels and reduce the inaccuracy. Problem & Improvement Firstly, there was a big problem I find. As soon as I pour the water in, the handle went opposite direction. So my reading of the voltmeter decreases. So I pour the water up to 1000ml first then taking water out from it each time. This dose take me a bit time but I managed in the end. Secondly, the voltages would change by the position of the beaker and if it was closer to the stand, the voltage would be smaller because when the position changed, the position of the float changed as well. During the experiment, somebody including myself touched the beaker a little bit, and then I just got an inaccuracy. Thirdly, in the experiment I found sometimes when the water level went up, the voltage went down. Normally it should go up because when the resistance was bigger, the voltage was increase. Then I found the reason. Sometimes when the level went up, the float moved to forward. Then it pulled the joint so the resistance was smaller. Lastly the float always collides the wall of the beaker, so when the water level went up, the float didn't work regularly and it affected my result of the voltage. ...read more.


When the level of water changed the water pushed the float up and the resistance of the Automatic Rain Gauge changed, then I knew how many the voltage changed form the voltmeter. I didn't take the time of response because when the water level went up, the voltage changed very quickly and I was not able to take the data. Resolution: Resolution is the smallest change that is measurable by the sensor. And the smallest reading voltmeter could get is 0.01v when the voltmeter set at 20v. Resolution when voltmeter set at 20: 0.01/1.92�10-3=5.23 Conclusion Water level sensors are one of the sensors which are not different to control but quite useful for our life. Because water is one kind of liquids, we can change water to other liquids, which is the liquid we want to investigate. My experiment investigated how it worked and proved the potential divider circuit. I sum up the data and did some graphs to show the relationship between the level of water, resistance and the voltage. However there are some inaccuracies because we cannot find the exactly data for the levels when the water was in the measuring cylinder. The only thing we can do just try our best to reduce the inaccuracy. Anyway, I reduced the inaccuracy to the smallest, so my experiment was successful. Also my sensor has a very quick Response time, high sensitivity and good Resolution, which is just good for the oil tank. ...read more.

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