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A Modest Proposal by Jonathan Swift and Animal Farm by George Orwell.

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Introduction

Hannah Scott- Abbey Grange C of E High School A Modest Proposal by Jonathan Swift and Animal Farm by George Orwell. Show how the satire of Orwell exposes problems in society in a different way to Swift. Satire- the use of ridicule or sarcasm to expose vice and folly. George Orwell was born in 1903 in India where his family were members of the upper middle class. He was educated at Eton but refused to attend a higher education establishment but never the less was still very well educated. He joined the Burma Police Force instead for a six-year stretch. When Orwell returned to England, he began his writing career and produced some of his most famous works. His inspiration was the political state of Europe with dictators such as Hitler and Stalin dominant. This led to the novella 'Animal Farm', which was written in 1944. It shows Orwell's disgust with Stalin's "style of socialism". Animal Farm was very controversial as the state of the USSR was admired by many socialists of the time; thus his publisher Victor Gollancz refused to accept it, as did T.S.Eliot and Jonathan Cape before Martin Secker & Warburg, Ltd finally accepted it in 1945. This slowed the publishing of the novella by eighteen months. It is possible to trace the origins of 'Animal Farm' back to Orwell's spell of fighting in the Spanish Civil War. He saw himself primarily as a political writer. ...read more.

Middle

'Animal Farm' follows a conventional narrative structure. The narrator tells its events in chronological order. The story itself contains a believable mixture of human and animal characters- even when the human characters are seen to clearly understand what the animals are saying- for example, when Pilkington makes his to Napoleon speech at the end of the novel, the reader believes that the two understand each other. The repetition of various ideas and images forms a pattern in the text. In particular Major's speech at the start of the novella is echoed and referred to throughout the novella, to provide a standard by which the pigs' actions are judged. The placing of the speech at the start of the novella, means that the reader shares the animals' enthusiasm for the vision of the future and becomes progressively more disappointed as the novella continues and we see those ideals destroyed: we are told several times that the animals work like 'slaves'. The novella is aimed at the masses, as it is cleverly written to reach the population on a number of levels; one being the message that not everything you are told by the authoritarian figure shouldn't be believed and trusted. Animal Farm's purpose is to highlight the corruption of power in the USSR under Stalin. 'A Modest proposal' however addresses only the educated middle classes. The authorial voice in 'A Modest Proposal' is of an English economist, spoken in a matter-of-fact manner leading the audience into agreement with the argument, and then giving a massive blow with his actual proposal, the shock of undeniable cannibalism. ...read more.

Conclusion

He attacks his own Protestant, English community by creating a narrator who considers himself a reasonable and compassionate fellow, but who combines a repulsive anti-Catholic bigotry with "modest" proposal that is actually a "final solution"; he advocates cannibalism as a means countering Irish Catholic poverty, abortion, and the high birth rate. Orwell's writing style descends directly from that of Swift the Augustan style of writing has been inherited through the centuries. Both literary pieces are political satires, portraying a government of the their time. Swift's is aimed at the upper class politicians in Ireland, where as Orwell's is suitable for all ages yet still has a powerful message hidden within its meaning. Written in different genres to reflect was acceptable at the time of writing and the style they are written in. The problems that Orwell encountered when attempting to publish his novella are no means extinct, a twenty first novelist is still encountering these troubles as her novel is a political satire, that is satirising the current British government and their policies and conduct. Carole Hayman's "Hard Choices" is said to be " an inappropriate determination to satirise New Labour when Tony Blair is doing so much for America!" The novella is futuristic set in 2010. So even today in a society that is said to have evolved and accepts most things and people the literary world is still encountering problems. In conclusion both Swift and Orwell's pieces have fulfilled their intent to, instruct the public about the corruption that has in the past taken place within ruling parties and their level of power. ...read more.

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