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Aim: What effect does the dual narration have upon the readers understanding of the text? Michael Frayn has a unique way of writing the Novel 'Spies'. Stephen is a character, which

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Introduction

Spies - Dual Narrative Aim: What effect does the dual narration have upon the readers understanding of the text? Michael Frayn has a unique way of writing the Novel 'Spies'. Stephen is a character, which can relate to any reader at any perspective because Frayn has written the Novel in such a way that Frayn can expose emotions and feelings. He uses dual narration to bring out ideas and personal reflections using an adult Stephen and a younger Stephen. This dual narration is very effective, it conveys the thoughts of both adult Stephen and younger Stephen. Firstly, the novel begins (chapter one) with adult Stephen narrating the story, 'adult' Stephen begins by recalling a scent which he brings him about as he nostalgically remembers his past "familiar breath of sweetness" and "On a summer's day nearly sixty years ago" these ...read more.

Middle

This creates an effect of closeness with the reader, and has perceptive. However, the narration of adult Stephen can be unreliable because during the narration he questions himself and confirms his memory on what he remembers therefore the reader cannot fully entrust what adult Stephen is saying, a quotation to show this is " No, wait. I've got that wrong. " This shows that Frayn has created ambiguity in the sense on leaving the reader on suspense. In contrast to the narration, the reader also has to live up to the thoughts of younger Stephen. Frayn has balanced the ambiguity as both narrations are unreliable because younger Stephen is a child and children tend to exaggerate their emotions "Mr Gort... was a murderer. But then, when we investigated, we found some of the bones of his victims in the waste ground..." ...read more.

Conclusion

Games are children's play and younger Stephen can feel this change therefore the reader reads this part in 1st person to give the reader a sense of reading it as if it were happening in the present whereas this has already happened and is being referred to as memory. In addition, at the start of chapter 3, younger Stephen begins telling the story from his point of view, so it starts off in 1st person and also in present tense, "So, she's a German spy. How do I react to the news?" this makes the reader engage into what younger Stephen says because the story is being told as it is happening and it grabs the reader's attention in the centre to find out what the truth is and also to reveal an event which ahs occurred, and the reader finds out as adult Stephen is telling the story. ...read more.

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