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Banks uses a variety of techniques in order to construct a voice for Frank in this extract and elsewhere in the novel, as I will explore.

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Banks uses a variety of techniques in order to construct a voice for Frank in this extract and elsewhere in the novel, as I will explore. Due to the fact that the story is written in the first person narrative the reader can automatically deduce that the events that are to be foretold will be somewhat biased and may not represent the full truth. I believe it is Banks intention to do this as it allows the reader directly into the mind of the main protagonist Frank and as it is a gothic novel his thoughts are likely to be unsettling for the reader, "I staggered back, partly to make it look good on the offchance there was somebody watching." The subordinate clause used here emphasises Franks callous nature and shows us that not only is he a killer, but also that he pre-meditated his attack, and even during the murder of Esmerelda his thoughts are solely on covering his tracks. The lack of remorse shown adds to this effect. The narrative voice used in this extract and elsewhere affects how the reader responds to the characters actions as all events are told in great detail. ...read more.


Frank's misogynistic feelings exist elsewhere in the novel also, "My greatest enemies are women and the sea...women because they are weak and stupid." Banks use of the post-modifiers 'weak' and 'stupid' just give the reader the impression that Frank is immature. He does not give clear reasons as to why he hates women, though the events of later in the novel could explain this. I believe Banks also uses these themes because women being weak is a gothic motif and it fits in with the overall style that he would like the novel to portray. As with all of his murders, Frank goes into great detail as to his reasons for committing the crimes and tries to justify them. "She had a fistful of tiny flowers." 'Fistful' accentuates Esmerelda's lack of development and her innocence. The use of the pre-modifying adjective adds to this effect, as it implies she has a whole handful of only very small flowers. I believe it is Banks' clear intention to create sympathy towards Frank's latest victim. Just before Frank murders Esmerelda she gives him a flower, "I accepted the daisy she gave me graciously." ...read more.


The noun 'flowers' again evokes funereal imagery as previously in the novel. The sibilance used by Banks helps to create a feeling of disharmony. Banks has clearly juxtaposed language of a callous nature with quite poetic language. Banks also uses the technique earlier in the novel; "I'd lain down inside them like some Christ or something, opened to the sky, dreaming of death." The statement is blasphemous and Frank once again self-elevates himself, this time to God-like status. He is emphasising his power over smaller things. The alliteration used in the subordinate clause emphasises Frank's disturbed mind-set. Again Banks juxtaposes the poetic with the quite disturbing. The anti-Christ point of view is a gothic motif, which is why Banks has included it in the novel. Non-Christian practices also appear elsewhere in the novel when Frank sacrifices animals. I believe Banks intention is allow readers to form their own judgments on Frank as he is telling the story. This explains his use of the first person narrative voice. He also intends to create sympathy for Franks victims through a variety of literary techniques as I have explored. He uses these same techniques in order to create a voice for Frank to express himself and his complex feelings. Wasp Factory Essay By Ravneek Gahunia ...read more.

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