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The focus of the work is on the analysis of metaphors used in speeches of the present American President George Walker Bush. Throughout history the art of public speaking has been a vital means of communication.

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Introduction The present paper deals with metaphors in political speeches. As public speakers should be men of character and know their subject, the focus of the work is on the analysis of metaphors used in speeches of the present American President George Walker Bush. Throughout history the art of public speaking has been a vital means of communication. Leader Pericles said nearly 2500 years ago: "One who forms a judgement on any point but cannot explain" it clearly "might as well never have thought at all on the subject." The forenamed leader does not only know how to explain his point of view clearly but also form the public opinion and influence the minds and stereotypes of common people so that they start considering them their own. The aim of this paper is to analyze how Bush's speeches have further shaped the general public's view and its life-style concepts and how metaphors make political speeches appealing, interesting, and memorable; how metaphors used political speeches direct our vision, thinking, and action. While they give new insight into an understanding of some things, they can blind people to other aspects of the situation. The whole paper is supposed to introduce a thorough picture of political metaphors, taking into consideration speakers' background, his nationality and the history of the country. It consists of three chapters, the first two of which present the theoretical part and the last one is entirely practical and here the analysis of George W. Bush's speeches is made. Chapter I. The Rhetorical Tradition in the USA. Speaking is for listening. Speeches become effective only as they are perceived by the listeners and have some influence on them. Throughout the history of the United States the art of public speaking was in the focus of people's attention. There even have been people who earned a living by working the lecture circuit- traveling from city to city, town to town, delivering speeches as a form of entertainment or information to paying audiences. ...read more.


Thus his background influenced his vocabulary and explained his familiarity with an American political tradition. President Bush's broad characterizations of the terrorist threat led him to expand the scope of his foreign policy from al-Qaeda and other terrorist organizations to other regimes hostile to the United States, regardless of their connection to the Sept. 11 attacks. He famously labeled Iraq, along with North Korea and Iran, as part of an axis of evil. Over the course of 2002, President Bush announced that the U.S. foreign strategy of containment and deterrence was an outdated cold war policy. Moral values and fighting terrorism were cited as the two main issues that won the president his second term. In the following analysis of Bush's speeches of 2001 and 2005, we can see his statement about American policy, how the metaphors reflect it, what kind of metaphors he uses and with what purpose, and how they express certain concepts both of American internal and foreign policy. 1. Freedom metaphors. The most central and salient notion in Bush's addresses is the notion of freedom and democracy, which is central in the political life of the USA as well and has been rooted in the history of this country. Lakoff states that politics is primarily concerned with issues of freedom and economy (Lakoff, George and Johnson, Mark, Metaphors We Live By), and the speeches of Bush prove it being abundant with the metaphors of freedom. First of all the metaphors used in the speeches of the President show that freedom and democracy are natural phenomena. America's faith in freedom and democracy was a rock in a raging sea. Now it is a seed upon the wind, taking root in many nations. At the same time freedom is force. We have seen our vulnerability - and we have seen its deepest source. For as long as whole regions of the world simmer in resentment and tyranny - prone to ideologies that feed hatred and excuse murder - violence will gather, and multiply in destructive power, and cross the most defended borders, and raise a mortal threat. ...read more.


I ask you to be citizens: citizens, not spectators; citizens, not subjects; responsible citizens, building communities of service and a nation of character. Where there is suffering, there is duty. Americans in need are not strangers; they are citizens, not problems, but priorities. And all of us are diminished when any are hopeless. It is curious that the metaphors about home policy are much less than those referring to the foreign one. In such a way the priorities of Bush's course become clear evident. At home everything was already done, but the world was still suffering form injustice, tyranny, lack of freedom and democracy. The metaphors used to demonstrate Bush's home policy can be treated as a simple idle talk, mentioned for the sake of mentioning. Conclusion George Lakoff and Mark Johnson in their work Metaphors We Live By state that metaphor for most people is a device of poetic imagination and the rhetorical flourish- a matter of extraordinary rather than ordinary language and most people think they can get along perfectly well without a metaphor. The present paper proved that metaphors are pervasive even in politics, sometimes even having become traditional and rooted in people's culture. As a result of a thorough analysis a conclusion may be drawn: metaphor in political discourse does not entirely consist of frozen conventionalizations, as say our common-place acceptance that GOOD IS UP and DOWN IS BAD (Lakoff and Johnson. 1980). Rather, political discourse is constructed interactively, over time and across interlocutors. The use of metaphor in political discourse permits to create common ground by appeal to a shared cultural frame. Thus metaphors become instrument that embody otherwise amorphous or remote concepts in ways that the public can readily understand, that hide or distort the reality, demonstrate the necessity of a certain policy, make people believe in appropriateness of certain actions. The vivid imagery can make boring political speech interesting and remembered. People obviously believed Bush as he was elected for the second presidency, and not the last role in their decision played the metaphors he used. ...read more.

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