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GCSE: RC Sheriff
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As the play advances there are clear signs of these traits in Raleigh. For example when he arrives in the trenches, he is offered some whisky from Osborne, 'Will you have a drink?' but Raleigh replies, 'Er- well'. From this reply it is obvious that Raleigh has never drunken whisky due to his uncertainty and unclear response. To many of the older men in the trenches it was a part of everyday life, as if they were drinking water, and this incident in turn exaggerates Raleigh's inexperience and youthful mind. Then, just to emphasise his youth, Raleigh says, '...
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In charge of Company C, Captain Stanhope is under a lot of pressure to succeed, and he has turned to alcohol to control his nerves. The other men en courage Stanhope's excessive drinking and enjoy watching him drink an entire bottle of whisky in one evening. He is dependent on the alcohol but unfortunately for the others, his temper often flares up whilst drunk. One example of this is when Hibbert jokingly tells Stanhope that he'd "better go to bed".
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For example: "He stops as he notices the abrupt silence that follows his entry," this pause instantly creates tension. At this point Stanhope is quiet; not raising his voice but we are able to tell he is serious. When Raleigh doesn't leave the letter, Stanhope exercises his power as captain by saying: "It's the rule that all letters must be censored." Though it is a rule, Stanhope doesn't need to; Stanhope just wants his own way like a spoilt child. He once again shows his power during the exchange with Raleigh: "D'you understand an order?" Stanhope is no very irritated and so uses a rhetorical question to further his imperative; he'll stop at nothing to get a hold of that letter.
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Stanhope's reasons for not taking proper leave in three years are thought off by the other soldiers as high commitment levels and devotion to his job. But we find out the real reason is his love for Madge(Raleigh's sister) is to great that he does not wish to let her see what he has become under the pressures of war and leadership and wants her to still believe he is a great hero who many look up to and admire.
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This comparison may even suggest that they think war is pointless, just like bear baiting and cock fighting. Raleigh and Osbourne both die and everything which was built within and between the characters is torn apart, Stanhope being the perfect example having a complete mental breakdown. I guess from all that the question could be, did Sherriff imply that the war was futile? In Act 1 the idea of comradeship and relationships is brought out. Osbourne is referred to as "Uncle" this shows us the fact that just like at home when trouble occurs you turn to family for comfort and support, this is obviously what they had created in their own company.
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This scene is the part where Raleigh is first introduced to Osborne, the company and to the audience. From the talk between Osborne and Hardy a few moments earlier, the audience has already learned of Stanhope's problems and two different opinions of him. This creates dramatic tension within the audience as this new character sounds exciting and thrilling. It is clear to see that this character will contribute interest to the play. However the tension is greatly increased when we meet Raleigh, and his perceptions of Stanhope. Raleigh is living off the good memories he has of Stanhope when they were young.
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Another time when we sympathise with Raleigh is when he wants to send a letter home. Stanhope is paranoid that Raleigh has written bad things about him in his letter to Madge, therefore Stanhope is determined to censor Raleigh's letter. After Raleigh refuses politely to give his letter to the persistent Stanhope, he is faced by Stanhope orders, "give me that letter" this lets us understand that Stanhope is willing to do anything to get that letter, and we also understand that Raleigh will be forced to give up his fight. He cries "But - Dennis -" in hope that his old friend will give in.
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The author shows us this through, emotive language, reflective tones and metaphors. An Example of the emotive language is "and im sorry I could not travel both" in saying this, the author can position us to understand that man has thought about both roads, and he might be a little regretful that he did not travel down the other road.. An example of the reflective tones is "long I stood" this shows us that he is in on a journey, maybe contemplating whether he should continue. An example of a metaphor is each stanza and basically the whole poem.
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The play doesn't have any courageous battle scenes and huge explosions, a happy ending or a valiant death bed scene. Instead, the horrors of war are portrayed through the waiting and suspense of not knowing what was going to happen next and the way the characters would try to find security and comfort in any way possible. Fear and cowardice is shown a lot amongst the British soldiers in this play, which is very different from the usual courageous soldiers, ready for battle.
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were just a few of the phrases that penetrated our ears through the stress that enveloped us. Naturally, Granddad already had everything perfect and ready. Ten hectic minutes later I was squashed into the car in-between the cantankerous mound that was my sister, Helen, and a bulging suitcase, half full of cans of tomato soup (apparently that was the only thing you couldn't get in the paradise to which we were on course for). Stage one - the launch, was under way with no setbacks. Or was until the "perfect" Granddad realised he had forgotten his beloved walking stick and subsequently left us waiting for ten minutes while he retrieved it!
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He said tonight." Stanhope: oh, but that's absurd!" They were to leave under a smoke screen. On the contrary, I think the English planned it incorrectly because the Germans would find it harder to see the soldiers in the dark; if they put a smoke screen up then it would be even harder to see and shoot them. Another mistake, I believe, is when they decided to send Raleigh; this is because he is so young and inexperienced, however he is
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What does Raleigh's letter home and the censorship issue tell you about Raleigh and Stanhope and the way they look at things?
There are many things that could attribute to this. One of these could be stress (the big German attack is only a few days away), or it could be that he is just generally in a bad mood. However I think that it has mainly to do with the alcohol he consumes and could be the effects of a hangover. It them seems that Stanhope is calmed down by Osbourne's presence. We are led to believe that Stanhope and Osbourne have been in the war together a long time together.
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In Journey's End we follow the character of Raleigh for a very good reason. Raleigh is the inexperienced new boy figure
Trotter is the cohesive element in the group, who keeps things together, and is very much an everyman figure. In my view it is Trotter who takes Raleigh under his wing more than anyone else , openly defends and supports him. We also see Trotter guide the new boy around the trench and attempt to educate him towards the new environment. Oswald, although serving under Stanhope is more of a headmaster figure, portrayed as wise his whisky is written instead of distilled.
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In what ways does R C Sheriff re-create the tremendous stress and fear suffered by all the men (Do all the character react in
Now day's technology is better and now advanced props are used. Most acts of performing arts are now seen at the cinema. If we were to go and see Journey's End today most of us would be shocked and horrified after watching this play, but back in 1928 people who were watching this play may have been out in the trenches, so they could personally relate to how the characters are feeling. Now days most people haven't witnessed mass death!
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To what extent do you believe that R.C Sherriff successfully presents the experience of the life in the trenches and of how class attitudes persisted through it?
Then with the help of George Bernard show it was produced at the Savoy theatre. " Journeys End" became a huge success in both Europe and America. R.C Sheriff died in November 1975. I personally would say that R.C Sherriff successfully presents the experience of the life in the trenches and of how class attitudes persisted throughout the play. And through out this essay I will attempt to show you why I feel the way that I do. The first character I will speak of is Raleigh he is 18 and straight from school.
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Discuss the ways in which R.C Sheriff uses drama to convey the suffering of the soldiers on the Western Front during the Great War Journey's End is a play set in the Great War
To forget all the reality of war Stanhope drinks. He drinks excessively and this helps him to forget the pain that he is feeling. "Not a drunkard; just a-just a hard drinker; but you're quite right about his nerves. They are all to blazes." Even though most of the time he doesn't realise what he is doing, he hates himself for being this way; having to rely on alcohol to keep him sane. It is through the alcoholic factor of Stanhope's personality that Sheriff shows the suffering of the soldiers in the war.
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"The impact of journeys is felt by both individuals and the group. No-one can escape the impact of a journey". Discuss
Peter Skrzynecki's Immigrant Chronicle (containing the three poems Postcard, Leaving Home, A Drive in the Country) is an autobiographical exploration of the impacts Skrzynecki's polish and Ukrainian heritage and the immigrant experience had on him and the migrants as a whole. The representation of the Skrzynecki family in the poems in Immigrant chronicle is both specific to them and, to a large extent, to migrants in general. It examines the migrant experience as a physical journey. Skrzynecki reflects on his life and its impacts, whilst in many circumstances showing how these challenges have altered his attitudes.
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'Journey's End', as well as other war literature of the time, helped to change people's attitudes from Victorian attitudes to more modern and aware ones. The confrontation of Stanhope and Hibbert in act 2 scene 2 is key in our understanding of the characters and Sheriff's anti-war message. The attempt by Hibbert to escape from the war by faking neuralgia is thwarted when the character of Stanhope reveals his own fears about the war. When the character of Hibbert attempts to leave, Stanhope threatens to shoot him 'accidentally' to spare him the shame of being shot as a deserter.
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The poem "Notes on a Winters Journey and a Footnote", written by Norman MacCaig is a thought provoking Scottish poem. MacCaig uses stereotypical landscapes and weather to emphasise his feelings throughout the poem
He also describes other aspects of which are found mainly in Scotland such as, "stags" and "lochs". Each and every one of the six stanzas shows a different stage in which he is at in the journey allowing the reader to see the changes in his attitude and emotions at that specific time. The first stanza outlines a description of a typical Scottish countryside setting. This is shown by the way in which the snow is described, "almost faultless". This imagery is tied in with the description later in stanza one when MacCaig saw "two stags" with "cold noses and "yellow teeth" giving an overall impression to the reader that he was in the countryside.
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The short part of the novel in which Levi and the rest of the Germans show how similar the two sides are, they are all just people that are being lead by different leaders. Another similarity to Journey's End is the inclusion of men dying for their duty, in Journey's End Osbourne and Raleigh raid the German trench putting their lives on the line for their country, similarly in Birdsong there are attacks from the trenches - " Stephan saw men trying to emerge from the trench but being smashed by bullets before they could stand."
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In fact he recommends him for the job and seems to think he is "just the type". Although his attitude is particularly different to that of Stanhope who stutters and carries the opinion that it is "rotten to send a fellow who's only just arrived". However, his reasons for not wanting Raleigh to be sent happen to be because of their childhood friendship. Because of the different forms of writing, Sheriff has been able to create backgrounds for the characters and gives reasons for any inch of sentimentality.
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Explain How Sheriff uses a range of techniques in Act 1 Scene 3 to explore the Horrors of War and to make the Scene More Dramatic
Another reason why Act 1 Scene 3 is the most significant is because in this scene R.C Sheriff explains most of the horrors of war such as death and fear of going into no mans land. In Act 3 Scene 1 R.C Sheriff uses a range of techniques to give the audience a clear idea about what it was like in World War 1. In this scene he conveys action through the raid, in which they capture a German for information. Sheriff uses language to show the audience how the soldiers felt before the raid and what they spoke about.
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Compare and Contrast the Presentation of the Psychological Effects of the WarAnd the Setting on Stanhope, Osborne and Raleigh in 'Journey's End', andHilliard and Barton in 'Strange Meeting'
Sherriff similarly presents a believable representation of relationships formed between certain stereotypes conveyed. Sherriff's strong anti-war attitude in 'Journey's End' is obvious through his detailed descriptions of the psychological effects that the War had on his characters. Sherriff served in the First World War and is likely to have based the events of the play on his experiences. Hill depicts a believable portrayal of the effect that conditions had on the men involved, due to the meticulous research she carried out prior to constructing the novel.
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Write about the presentation of Stanhope's relationship with Raleigh in Act Two Scene One, Act Three Scene Two and Act Three Scene Three.
Raleigh really looks up to Stanhope and asked his Uncle to be sent to the same dugout as Stanhope. This probably isn't just because of his hero worship, but also to feel safe as Stanhope looked after and looked out for Raleigh when he was still a young boy at school. Act Two Scene 1 is a key scene that shows Stanhope has no trust in Raleigh at all. Raleigh has written a letter home to his sister and Stanhope assumes he has written about his drinking habits in, and he actually tries to censor his letter home.
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game we would later stumble across in the Kruger. On entering the Kruger we had been mentally prepared for the fact that you can stay in the Kruger for a week and not see any of the big 5 (lion, leopard, buffalo, elephant and rhino). This really made every sighting extra special, as by day 2 (of 3) we had seen all big 5 along with many other wonders of the animal kingdom including: zebra, impala, nyala, cheetah, and vulture.
- Word count: 921