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GCSE: Mary Shelley
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Mary Shelly's biography
- 1 Mary Shelley was born in London in 1797, daughter of William Godwin and Mary Wollstonecraft, who were famous writers of the day. Her father was a political writer and her mother was a pioneer feminist writer.
- 2 Mary’s mother died ten days after her birth so she was brought up by her father who made sure she was educated well, by him and tutors, but her education failed to give her the emotional support she needed from a mother.
- 3 In 1814, through her father’s literary connections, she met and fell in love with the then unknown, but already married, Percy Bysshe Shelley, and in July they eloped to the Continent. In 1816, after Shelley’s first wife Harriet committed suicide, Mary and Percy were married.
- 4 Mary Shelley’s life with Percy was destined to be full of hardship and death; she bore four children but only one survived, Percy Florence. They lived in Italy from 1818 until 1822, when Shelley drowned, following his boat capsizing in a storm.
- 5 Mary returned to London with her son where she continued to live a very simple and difficult life as a professional writer until her death in 1851.
About the novel
- 1 Frankenstein or The Modern Prometheus is a novel about a failed experiment that produced a monster. Shelley started writing the story when she was eighteen, and the novel was published when she was twenty-one. The first edition was published anonymously in London in 1818. Mary Shelley’s name appears on the second edition, published in France in 1823.
- 2 The story is set in the Geneva area where Mary Shelley and her future husband Percy Bysshe Shelley had travelled to with a group of other young writers of the Romantic movement. They were young and liberal-minded and their discussions included some of the ideas seen in the novel - galvanism, scientific developments and the occult.
- 3 Mary Shelley was talking with her three writer friends, Percy, Lord Byron, and John Polidori, when they decided they would have a competition to see who could write the best horror story. After thinking for weeks about what her possible storyline could be, Mary Shelley dreamt about a scientist who created life and was horrified when he saw his creation.
- 4 Frankenstein is infused with many elements of the Gothic novel and the Romantic movement and is also considered to be one of the earliest examples of science fiction. The novel has had a considerable influence across literature and popular culture and spawned a complete genre of horror stories and films.
- 5 The structure of Frankenstein begins in epistolary form with four letters from Robert Walton to his sister Margaret wherein he describes his experiences and his meeting with Frankenstein. After the fourth letter we have Frankenstein’s narrative then the Creature’s narrative, and the novel ends with Walton again addressing his sister, reminding the reader that the whole novel is, in fact, one long letter.
Writing about 'Frankenstein'
- 1 It is important to know the social, cultural and historical background of the text. Having this knowledge will help you better understand why Mary Shelley wrote the novel and how many aspects of her life are reflected in the characters and the themes.
- 2 You must show good understanding of the main characters and how they interact with each other - Robert Walton, Victor Frankenstein, and the Creature - and how they relate to other characters. The characters are revealed through a variety of stylistic features: letters, description, parallels and juxtaposition, the different narratives and how the characters communicate with each other.
There are several themes running throughout the novel: death, creation, isolation, prejudice, nature/nurture, fate and destiny, fathers and sons, dreams and religion.
You must understand how the themes are woven through the text and how they link directly to the characters and the society portrayed in the novel. For example, both Frankenstein and the Creature link to the theme of isolation because Frankenstein chose to isolate himself from society when he was creating his being, whereas the Creature was isolated from society because of his unnatural appearance and subsequent rejection by everyone.
- 4 You must be able to analyse how Mary Shelley has used narrative structure, description, character development and language to create effects - her description and use of pathetic fallacy create a Gothic atmosphere and mood. Detailed analysis of these techniques is needed to achieve a high grade.
- 5 You must develop your own critical sense and personal response to the novel, showing that you have thought about it, and that you have ideas and reactions of your own, not just those of your teacher. You must never write to a formula or try to recreate an essay you have previously done; you must approach every essay with a fresh, open mind.
The Novel Frankenstein is as relevant and as terrifying today as it was when it was first published in 1818. Discuss.4 star(s)
She had many opportunities to listen to their discussions and opinions, in an environment that nourished her intellectuality. One of these visitors was Percy Shelley, a Romantic poet that later became Mary Shelley's husband and her greatest influence. Her inspiration to write Frankenstein came in 1816 when Mary and Percy Shelley visited Lord Byron in Switzerland. Although it was summer, it was often rainy and wet and they spent great part of their holiday at home. It was a favourable environment to long conversations, and one day Lord Byron came up with the idea that they all would write a ghost story.
- Word count: 2446
Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley was born in 1797 in the tow of Somers, in Great Britain. Her mother Mary Wollstonecraft (author and feminist) unfortunately died as the result of Mary's birth. Her father and resented stepmother cared for her. In the year 1813 Mary Shelley's luck changed; she met a poet by the name of Percy Bysshe Shelley. Three years later in the year of 1816 they travelled to Geneva where Percy and Mary and two friends conjured an idea to pen a ghost story. Mary's Frankenstein was the only one to ever be published! Mary's final years with her husband were filled with pure disaster.
- Word count: 2181
Frankenstein has been described as a 'novel of the Gothic genre' do you feel this adequately describes the novel?4 star(s)
Walton's passion for venturing into the unknown and learning presents the idea that exploring is thrilling, therefore setting the tone for the rest of the novel. Victor has a craving for knowledge; 'From this day natural philosophy, and particularly chemistry...became nearly my sole occupation.' This suggests that Victor has a dedication to learning, he is always questioning and his ambition to take ideas further is extremely risky. Victors obsession with knowledge can be linked to the theme of light and fire; '...
- Word count: 2357