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Great Expectations.

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Great Expectations The Victorian era was very different compared to modern society. The Victorians were a lot more concerned with class and also the attitudes between adults and children. The children were punished a lot more frequently and severely. The Victorians believed that when they beat children they were teaching them a lesson and it was part of growing up. The phrase "Bringing a child up by hand", such as Mrs Joe to Pip, refers to what the parents or guardians of Victorian children would say when they brought a child up with beatings. If you were known to bring someone up by hand, you gained a great reputation with the neighbours and community such as Mrs Joe has done. Children were often given the dirty dangerous jobs, such as chimney sweeping, in which thousands of children died due to dust inhalation or just forgot about and burned to death when the fires were lit. In the book, Mrs Joe is Pip's "loco parentis", which means "Instead of parent". This is because Pip's parents are dead and his sister, Mrs Joe, is his guardian. ...read more.


respect for each other as Pip respects Mrs Joe even when she hits him and she tries to get more respect by hitting him, whereas she has no respect for him at all. An example of how much she cares about his feelings is when he comes back from the churchyard and she says "Churchyard! If it weren't for me you'd have been to the churchyard long ago, and stayed there. Who brought you up by hand?". Mrs Joe tries to make Pip appreciate her and she makes it sound as if he owes her his life and he should be grateful, but she makes it sound as if he is nothing but a burden. It is hard to distinguish weather Mrs Joe really does care for Pip or she is just acting like she does to get respect from him and the neighbours as she says "Tell me directly what you've been doing to wear me away with fret and worry, or I'd have you out of that corner if you was fifty Pips and he was five hundred Gargery's." ...read more.


Joe however can sometimes hold his feelings for Pip back and although he probably thinks of Pip as his own, he would never say it to him. Instead the best comment he could say is Old Chap, rather than other terms of endearment. He tries to convince him that he is like a good friend whereas deep down he considers him one of his own. Pip treats Joe like a father and with that expects him to be on hand whenever he is in trouble. Joe is uneasy about this though and often tries to push it aside when Pip asks for something. Tickler is the nickname used for Mrs Joe's cane which she uses to beat sense and manners into Pip. It is often referred to as a male when it is called "He". He is used to punish Pip when he has angered Mrs Joe, by going out without telling her or a series of other events which he would do. Mrs Joe is convinced that by beating children and causing harm to them when they do something wrong is the best way to make them learn. It is merely an extension or instrument of Mrs Joe's anger, dominance and ability to control people by the use of pain. ...read more.

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