• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month


Extracts from this document...


Jen Stringer 12A HOW FAR DO YOU AGREE THAT, FROM 1471 TO 1483, EDWARD IV WAS SUCCESSFUL IN EVERYTHING EXCEPT ENSURING AN UNDISPUTED SUCCESSION? Edward's reign was mainly stable and successful. He was the first king to die financially solvent in over 200 years due mainly to his careful avoidance of major foreign wars and by the end of his reign there was evident recovery of prosperity in the southern counties. However, Edward died too early to ensure that his heir would succeed him unchallenged. He had not created a collective commitment to the future of his dynasty that would make his heir strong enough to survive a minority reign. Although this was his main failure, he did not wholly succeed in all other actions through his reign. Edward's foreign policies appear to be eminently successful. The treaty of Picquigny in 1475 was beneficial for both Edward personally and England. A seven year truce between England and France was to be observed, meaning there would be no more costly wars or no chance of a French attack. ...read more.


The introduction of the Land revenue led a greater prominence of the chamber. His royal household now collected the taxes in place of the Exchequer. He was seen as a financially capable businessman and was therefore able to borrow loans easily from merchants in London. Although Edward was mainly successful with his financial policies and his treatment of the nobility, he was in fact too reliant on the Duke of Gloucester and Northumberland. This led to them becoming over-mighty nobles, giving them the opportunity to eventually depose Edward's heir from the throne. Although it was not obvious at the time, this was a critical failure as it meant an undisputed succession was not ensured. Edward's commercial policy was mainly successful. He promoted the development of the English merchant marine, a new market for English trade and commerce. His treaty with Burgundy created a bigger British export trade. The export of cloth doubled and the problem of piracy decreased. Also, the treaty of Utrecht increased Hansiatic trade. Edward's only notable failure where trade was concerned was his tendency to rely too heavily on both English and foreign merchants for loans. ...read more.


He traded successfully in wool for his personal benefit to restore his family's fortunes. This also enabled him to rely less on others for personal profit. Edward, however, did not work hard enough to ensure an undisputed succession. It was his responsibility to ensure this. He did set up councils to govern in the Marches of Wales in order to secure his son's power base there, but this was not enough. Of course, his early death did contribute to his son's usurpation and this was a matter beyond his control but perhaps he could have secured his son's position if he had not relied so heavily on Gloucester or married into such an unpopular family, amongst other things. Edward's reign was mainly prosperous. He had many successes in all aspects of his kingly duties. Trade and commerce improved, foreign relations improved, he died solvent and his treatment of the nobility and his councils was mainly sound. However, his over-reliance on nobles, his unproductive attack on Scotland and the Woodville marriage were all political mistakes that show that his inability to ensure an undisputed succession was not in fact his only failure. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE Richard III section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related GCSE Richard III essays

  1. Mary Tudor's Reign Was a Disaster: Do You Agree?

    Mary detested him, so after he had done this, announced that he would be executed anyway. At his execution, he put his right hand (which he had signed the paper with) into the flames first to punish it. Two bishops: Latimer and Ridley were to be burnt together at Oxford in October 1555.

  2. 'In his depiction of Richard III Shakespeare has created much more than a simple ...

    This is dramatic irony in place, as the Lord Mayor doesn't know Richard's resentment for religion. Nevertheless, even we are fooled by the great fake role he plays here. The language he uses is that of a Christian man, along with the props beside him.

  1. Discuss how the climatic scenes from Edward Scissorhands and Sleepy Hollow make use of ...

    as the scene itself is full of browns, reds and yellows of all the leaves. All of these examples show that the way Tim Burton uses camera angles, changes the way the audience see and perceive the gothic nature of each shot.

  2. How successfulwas Edward IV in restoring royal authority by 1470?

    Because of this, the justice system improved. However, there were still pockets of lawlessness around the country, such as rebellions and uprisings of Lancastrians. Although Edward was determined to take no nonsense, the crime rate did not decrease significantly. Edward has asserted royal authority to an extent here as he

  1. How effective was Edward IV's domestic government from 1471?

    he reinstated the Council of Wales of the Marshes in the 1470s (which was made for his son, the future Edward V). This was increasingly used as a regional branch of the royal council and given more and more powers and administrative tasks.

  2. How effectively did the Scots respond to Edward I's historical arguments for English superiority ...

    The 'Great Roll,'as was named the painstaking compilation of examples begun in1292 lists over twenty examples of Scottish kings giving homage to English Kings and so it was claimed, apparently quite reasonably, that since ancient Scottish kings had always been subject to English overlordship, and since in recent times Scottish

  1. "The Problem With Finance Was The Only One Solved During The 2nd Reign Of ...

    Edward was the first king to die solvent in more than 200 years. This is impressive because there were serious problems during Edwards first reign that caused the crown to be in big finance troubles. Edwards's generosity with land in his first reign led to him making money from the land and then renting it for cheap- i.e.

  2. Discuss the effectiveness of the opening ofTim Burton's 'Edward Scissorhands'

    The horror genre is offset by Peg's chirpy one-liners. Her vulnerability seems to prepare us for a confrontation between a victim Peg and a menacing Edward, but in fact the relationship is inverted, with Peg having the upper hand. It is symbolic that her reaction to Edward's scars is to offer him make up because cosmetics are all about

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work