• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month


Extracts from this document...


Jen Stringer 12A HOW FAR DO YOU AGREE THAT, FROM 1471 TO 1483, EDWARD IV WAS SUCCESSFUL IN EVERYTHING EXCEPT ENSURING AN UNDISPUTED SUCCESSION? Edward's reign was mainly stable and successful. He was the first king to die financially solvent in over 200 years due mainly to his careful avoidance of major foreign wars and by the end of his reign there was evident recovery of prosperity in the southern counties. However, Edward died too early to ensure that his heir would succeed him unchallenged. He had not created a collective commitment to the future of his dynasty that would make his heir strong enough to survive a minority reign. Although this was his main failure, he did not wholly succeed in all other actions through his reign. Edward's foreign policies appear to be eminently successful. The treaty of Picquigny in 1475 was beneficial for both Edward personally and England. A seven year truce between England and France was to be observed, meaning there would be no more costly wars or no chance of a French attack. ...read more.


The introduction of the Land revenue led a greater prominence of the chamber. His royal household now collected the taxes in place of the Exchequer. He was seen as a financially capable businessman and was therefore able to borrow loans easily from merchants in London. Although Edward was mainly successful with his financial policies and his treatment of the nobility, he was in fact too reliant on the Duke of Gloucester and Northumberland. This led to them becoming over-mighty nobles, giving them the opportunity to eventually depose Edward's heir from the throne. Although it was not obvious at the time, this was a critical failure as it meant an undisputed succession was not ensured. Edward's commercial policy was mainly successful. He promoted the development of the English merchant marine, a new market for English trade and commerce. His treaty with Burgundy created a bigger British export trade. The export of cloth doubled and the problem of piracy decreased. Also, the treaty of Utrecht increased Hansiatic trade. Edward's only notable failure where trade was concerned was his tendency to rely too heavily on both English and foreign merchants for loans. ...read more.


He traded successfully in wool for his personal benefit to restore his family's fortunes. This also enabled him to rely less on others for personal profit. Edward, however, did not work hard enough to ensure an undisputed succession. It was his responsibility to ensure this. He did set up councils to govern in the Marches of Wales in order to secure his son's power base there, but this was not enough. Of course, his early death did contribute to his son's usurpation and this was a matter beyond his control but perhaps he could have secured his son's position if he had not relied so heavily on Gloucester or married into such an unpopular family, amongst other things. Edward's reign was mainly prosperous. He had many successes in all aspects of his kingly duties. Trade and commerce improved, foreign relations improved, he died solvent and his treatment of the nobility and his councils was mainly sound. However, his over-reliance on nobles, his unproductive attack on Scotland and the Woodville marriage were all political mistakes that show that his inability to ensure an undisputed succession was not in fact his only failure. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE Richard III section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related GCSE Richard III essays

  1. Discuss how the climatic scenes from Edward Scissorhands and Sleepy Hollow make use of ...

    For example in Sleepy Hollow it is used in the windmill scene as a source of light which is meant to be the moon. It is also used as flashes of lightning, both used so frequently in gothic films and both adding to the gothic mood and tension of the scene.

  2. How successfulwas Edward IV in restoring royal authority by 1470?

    Because of this, the justice system improved. However, there were still pockets of lawlessness around the country, such as rebellions and uprisings of Lancastrians. Although Edward was determined to take no nonsense, the crime rate did not decrease significantly. Edward has asserted royal authority to an extent here as he

  1. Discuss the effectiveness of the opening ofTim Burton's 'Edward Scissorhands'

    In the introduction there is a glimpse of the side of his face, then a fleeting shadow and the 'snip-snip' sound of scissors when Peg first enters the mansion, so when she finally reaches the attic and Edward emerges, there is a sense of satisfaction at finally being able to see the much-awaited title character properly.

  2. 'In his depiction of Richard III Shakespeare has created much more than a simple ...

    Richard is now the king of England and has achieved his objective (however, there are still obstacles in his way). We all feel very sad and there is an atmosphere of melancholy at what has been done to the Princes.

  1. Is it right to describe Edward the Confessor as a failure?

    He also appointed Leofric an Englishman to Devon and Cornwall in 1046, Heca, an Englishman, to Sussex in 1047, Ulf, a Norman, to Dorchester in 1049 and Robert of Jumi�ges to London in 1051and later he was transferred to Canterbury.

  2. Mary Tudor's Reign Was a Disaster: Do You Agree?

    300 people were burnt during Mary's reign. The sad thing was that Mary burnt unimportant people - such as pregnant women!!! Thomas Cranmer had given Henry VIII his divorce. He was the reason that Mary had once been called "illegitimate."

  1. How strong was the monarchy on the death of Edward IV in 1483?

    Edward calmed the situation by summoning the two brothers before the royal Council at the palace of Sheen in 1472. Edward forced a settlement in Clarence's favour as he gained possession of most of the Neville estates and was later created Earl of Warwick and Salisbury.

  2. How effective was Edward IV's domestic government from 1471?

    he reinstated the Council of Wales of the Marshes in the 1470s (which was made for his son, the future Edward V). This was increasingly used as a regional branch of the royal council and given more and more powers and administrative tasks.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work