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The novel shows the downfall from the boys' high class society society into a tribal-like culture of conflict

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Introduction

´╗┐Golding presents aspects of human nature as themes in the book. It alerts us to descend from order to chaos, good to evil, civilization to savagery. They are explored through how evil can be brought out in certain situations, the dangers in not addressing our own fears and the battle between civilization and anarchy.Most importantly, Golding achieved the above using metaphorical and didactic writing techniques that unquestionably shocked his readers - and still shocks them today. "Lord of the Flies" reveals how people can descend into barbarism in an atmosphere of chaos.The main issues in the novel are that of the divide between civilization and savagery, human evil, power and its consequences,.The theme of the breakdown of civilization toward savagery Brings out the struggle between the ruling parts of society. Golding's main Point of the conflict between civilization and savagery is through the characters in the novel. Ralph, the principal character and Piggy are both symbols for motivation and leadership, whilst Jack and his right hand man Roger are symbols for the desire for power, selfishness and not caring for morality and immorality. Jack cannot at first bring himself to kill a pig because of "the disgusting site of the knife going into living flesh; because of the site of blood." This shows the boys' innocence at the beginning. ...read more.

Middle

Even Ralph, the symbol for civilization, morality and leadership joins in the tribal chanting and killing of Simon for he cannot help himself but be part of the mob. After Simon's death, Ralph and Piggy discuss what happened but both desperately try to excuse their actions "It was dark. There was that - that bloody dance. There was lightning and thunder and rain. We was scared! ... It was an accident, that's what it was, an accident." They are denying that they were part of Simon's murder. The disturbing display of savagery when Jack's boys cut off a pigs head, the Lord of the Flies and put it on a stick as an offering for the beast is an important symbol of the theme of an instinctive human savagery. Simon's delirious confrontation with the Lord of the Flies confirms his theory of evil being instinctive to man and actually within all of us "There isn't anyone to help you. Only me. And I'm the beast... fancy thinking the Beast was something you could hunt and kill! ... You knew didn't you? I'm a part of you." Golding is portraying through these examples that every person, no matter how strong their moral instinct will become savage sometime or later. A strong theme throughout the novel is that of power. ...read more.

Conclusion

This is a presage of the incident of Simon's murder. The use of irony in the last chapter of the novel is effective in illustrating the boundary between civilization and savagery. One of Golding's most effective techniques is his use of a character who resolves a complication. As Ralph is escaping from Jack's tribe there is a sudden appearance of a Naval Officer to bring the boys back to the world of law and order. The fire that attracted the attention of the band of naval officers was not a controlled signal fire but a fire with the purpose of killing and burning Ralph as Jack's tribe hunted him. This is an essential message of the novel - the irony is that it was their savagery that ultimately saved them. The irony is deepened by the behavior of the officer. His manner indicates he has never seen such savagery, that he was outraged by the boys. Yet, the man is a naval officer at the very time of the rescues, himself serving in a war zone.The island is a microcosm and these techniques are the tools which provide the reader with a clear insight and an understanding into human nature.War and the time of his upbringing was the context for William Golding's "Lord of the Flies."Through the two wars, the Great Depression, and the Cold war, he was exposed to what mankind is truly capable of. ...read more.

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