• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Account for the decline in CBD's since the 1980's. What have town planners done to address the problem?

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Account for the decline in CBD's since the 1980's. What have town planners done to address the problem? The central business district (CBD) is regarded as the central place for retailing, office location and service activities. But since the 1980's there has been a decline in some CBD's but not all. This is mostly due to threats from the changes in shopping behaviour and deindustrialisation. Over recent years there has been growing concern about the damaging impact of out of town shopping centres on city centre retailers as the market is somewhat static or even declining. Whereas banks and offices are increasing in terms of space taken so are moving out of the CBD. Such as AXA on white Lund industrial estate, even though it is a nation wide company it still rents cheap premises as no one walks past it or impulse buys from it as all their business is carried out on either the telephone or the internet. ...read more.

Middle

With people living close to work there was little need for transport apart from in and out of town. The decline in the CBD arose from the changes over the decades in industry, technology, living and socio economic factors. A main factor is the access to CBD as it was difficult due to poor, irregular and not reliable transport. An additional factor is that Old buildings, warehouses and factories not suitable for modern retail and it would prove expensive for companies to knock down and build again or even modernise. Another factor is the congestion and traffic within the CBD this also leads to not suitable access for HGV and deliveries to shops and office etc. With little space within the CBD there is not adequate parking available and if there is it tends to be very expensive. People tend not to visit the CBD in adverse weather as it is unprotected from the environment outside. People also tend to feel anxious in CBD's with high rates of crime and vandalism which make it an unpleasant environment to visit. ...read more.

Conclusion

In response to the decline in CBD's planners have Slowed down or stopped Greenfield sites being built on meaning that developers will have to find Brownfield sites to build on It also means that urban sprawl will slow down or hopefully stop. Planners have also introduced the redevelopment of CBD's. Such as Southampton where the city council have produces an action strategy. This strategy includes the predestination of shopping streets, the introduction of CCTV and improving public transport links to the centre. Also they believe that changes in function of a CBD will help revive it such as introducing new tourist attractions and encouraging the location for new leisure and entertainment activities. Another response by planners is to introduce the 24 hour city this would mean shops staying open later in the evening and leisure facilities attracting a wider range of users thus the local economy benefiting from the higher spending. Also the city being seen as lively and attractive in the evening could also attract more people from out of town to visit. Laura.P Human Geography ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE Human Geography section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related GCSE Human Geography essays

  1. Find out if Dorking has the characteristics of a typical market town

    This theory was correct. By doing a pedestrian count and a questionnaire, I found out that there were twice as many people shopping in the high street compared to the market. Also the people in the high street knew what they where going to buy in the shops where as the people going to

  2. Investigating the differences in shopping patterns between out of town shopping centres and the ...

    When out on the weather was generally temperate which could have had a huge effect on my results if I was to go out and do more research in different weathers? I think this is one of the more significant limitations in my results if I was to do it

  1. In this investigation I will be investigating this hypothesis: Southampton has an important and ...

    These graphs show the age and gender of the people questioned in the questionnaire. It simply shows that a wide range of people answered the questionnaire and therefore shows that the results are a fair representation of the people who are visiting Southampton's CBD.

  2. Investigate the attractions of Dawlish and the effects that tourism has on the town.

    foot Physical factor Natural feature Relief The height and shape of the earth's surface Site Actual land upon which a settlement is built Situation Position of settlement in regard to the surrounding area Stack Pillar of rock surrounded by the sea and separated from the coastline Swash Movement of water

  1. Visit to the central Business district of Kidderminster.

    In order to justify this statement, graphical data will need to be presented. In my methodology, the following tasks were investigated so that there was hard evidence that Kidderminster does have some features of a CBD: * The Frontage

  2. The aim of this project is to delimit the CBD of Stamford.

    9 6 4 6 4 0 1 2 Tran 5 6 15 9 10 15 12 8 12 21 18 10 16 Tran 6 8 8 12 9 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Tran 7 11 15 11 12 5 7 11 8 1 0 0 0

  1. Where is the CBD in Guildford?

    A sudden fall in land-value will also indicate where the edge of CBD is. Land-value is low where there is less competition and therefore less valuable because it is not easily accessible. If a location is not easily accessible, then the pedestrian flow must also below.

  2. Enquiry: Investigation into Retail.

    As you can see, the properties on College Street and Upper Millgate/Corporation street are the most expensive to rent, at �15,000 p.a. and �11,500 p.a. respectively. These both attracted 75-100 pedestrians in three minutes. Although the prices are different, I think that the rent would fall on Millgate, as there

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work