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Acid Rain research. Causes and solutions.

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Introduction

Acid Rain Rain water is naturally acidic because carbon dioxide in the atmosphere combines with water molecules to form carbonic acid. When sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides in the atmosphere react with oxygen in the air forming sulfuric acid and nitric acid, acidic precipitation occurs in the form of rain, snow, or dust. Acid precipitation is considered to have a pH of 5.0 or lower. Acid deposition is more commonly used to describe acid precipitation because it includes both wet and dry decomposition. Discovery of Acid Rain The first reports of acid rain were in Manchester, England which was an important city during the Industrial Revolution. The relationship between acid rain and atmospheric pollution was found in 1852 by Robert Angus Smith. Acid rain was first used by him in 1872. ...read more.

Middle

This can result from the deposition of acids produced in the raindrops or by the precipitation removing the acids either in clouds or below clouds. Wet removal of both gases and aerosol are both of importance for wet deposition. Dry Deposition Acid deposition can also occur through dry deposition when precipitation is not involved. This can be responsible for about 20 to 60% of total acid deposition. It occurs when particles and gases stick to the ground, plants and other surfaces. Effects * Aquatic Ecosystems. Most biological life lives best with a pH level near neutral or 7.0. Aquatic vegetation and animal life vary in their susceptibility to changes in pH (some are more acid tolerant than others). Systems that are well-buffered may not be as affected by acidic runoff. ...read more.

Conclusion

Prevention * Require catalytic converters on auto & truck engines & factory smoke stacks * Require that all chemical wastes be neutralized before disposal * Convert to hydrogen fuels, solar or wind for energy * Clean up smokestacks and exhaust pipes * Restore damaged environments * Turn off lights, computers, and other appliances when you're not using them * Use energy efficient appliances: lighting, air conditioners, heaters, refrigerators, washing machines, etc. * Only use electric appliances when you need them Keep your thermostat at 68 F in the winter and 72 F in the summer. You can turn it even lower in the winter and higher in the summer when you are away from home. * Insulate your home as best you can * Carpool, use public transportation, or better yet, walk or bicycle whenever possible * Buy vehicles with low NOx emissions, and maintain all vehicles well ...read more.

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